Earth Representation and Measurement Quiz
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Earth Representation and Measurement Quiz

Created by
@RefreshingSnail

Questions and Answers

What is latitude?

The angle that describes the north-south position

Where is the Prime Meridian located?

Royal Observatory at Greenwich in London, England

What is a parallel on the Earth's surface?

A circle connecting all locations at a given latitude

How can the Earth's shape be mathematically defined?

<p>By using a sphere representation assuming the earth is perfectly round</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the accuracy range of phone GPS?

<p>3-15 meters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does GNSS consist of?

<p>Space, Control, and User segments</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which year did the first space images get captured from unmanned rockets?

<p>1948</p> Signup and view all the answers

When did remote sensing begin?

<p>1960</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an Earth observation system?

<p>WorldView</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the Canadian innovations in Earth observation mentioned in the text?

<p>CanadARM and RADARSAT constellation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Urthecast provide?

<p>High-resolution video of the Earth from the International Space Station</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is wavelength?

<p>The distance between wave peaks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most important vegetation pigment mentioned in the text?

<p>Chlorophyll</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does NDVI stand for?

<p>Normalized Difference Vegetation Index</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the smallest unit of distance that can be determined by a sensor measurement of the target?

<p>Spatial resolution</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why would Canada want its own receiving station for satellite data?

<p>To receive data in real-time from polar orbiting satellites for various purposes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Approximately how long does the Landsat record go back (years or decades)?

<p>50 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the most recent Landsat satellites?

<p>Landsat 7, 8, and 9</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three components of spectral resolution?

<p>The number of spectral channels/bands used, their location in the electromagnetic spectrum, and the bandwidth of each channel/band</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to near infrared photons when they intercept healthy vegetation?

<p>They are highly reflected by chlorophyll, so with healthy vegetation, they will be reflected more than unhealthy vegetation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Name and generally describe the sensor bands on a satellite with sub-metre spatial resolution. Name three things this satellite is best suited to observe.

<p>Visible and NIR spectrums, good for observing detailed satellite imagery for military use, monitoring buildings, urban infrastructure, and trees</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the minimum number of visible satellites needed for accurate positional location using GNSS?

<p>4</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which orbit is best suited for weather monitoring due to its consistent coverage of the same areas?

<p>Geostationary orbit</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which orbit are most remote sensing satellites located for predictable path and simultaneous measurements?

<p>Close Elliptical orbit</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does GNSS stand for?

<p>Global Navigation Satellite Systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of orbit is used for GPS tracking due to its remote location?

<p>Far Elliptical orbit</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the altitude range for a geostationary orbit?

<p>Above 35,786 km</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method is NOT used for space junk collection?

<p>Space elevator</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of Earth's atmosphere has the lowest air molecules?

<p>Thermosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of geostationary orbits?

<p>Weather monitoring</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which satellite system is NOT part of GNSS?

<p>ISRO</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the best orbit for space travel due to its proximity and gravity effect?

<p>Low-Earth orbit</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of orbit is used for telecommunications and satellite TV satellites?

<p>Geostationary orbit</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which map projection distorts the size of countries, making Greenland appear similar in size to Africa?

<p>Mercator projection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the meter originally defined as in 1793?

<p>One ten millionth of the distance from the equator to the north pole</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many nanometers (nm) are equal to one micrometer (µm)?

<p>1000 nm</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of map covers a large area with coarse detail?

<p>Small scale map</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is scale indicated on a map?

<p>Bar scale or fractional/ratio scale</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of geodetic markers?

<p>Establishing relative and absolute positions for triangulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of positioning is represented by coordinates of a point in space?

<p>Absolute positioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is latitude easier to calculate in?

<p>Ocean navigation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do conformal map projections preserve?

<p>Angles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the only correct representation of the Earth's surface?

<p>Geoid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the current definition of the meter based on?

<p>The speed of light</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the appropriate map scale for a neighborhood?

<p>1:15,000</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Earth Representation and Measurement

  • The Earth can be represented using three methods: sphere, ellipsoid, and geoid, with the geoid being the only correct representation of the Earth's surface.
  • Equivalent projections preserve area but distort shape, while conformal projections preserve angles but distort size.
  • The Mercator projection distorts the size of countries, making Greenland appear similar in size to Africa when it is actually 1/14th the area.
  • The meter was first defined in 1793 as "one ten millionth of the distance from the equator to the north pole," and is now defined based on the speed of light.
  • One micrometer (1 µm) equals 1000 nm.
  • Small scale maps cover a large area with coarse detail, while large scale maps cover a small area with great detail.
  • Scale can be indicated on a map using a bar scale or a fractional/ratio scale.
  • Appropriate map scales for different areas range from 1:40,000,000 for worldwide to 1:15,000 for a neighborhood.
  • Devices for measuring distances include electron microscopes, optical microscopes, cameras, and telescopes.
  • Relative positioning is determining a location relative to other landmarks, while absolute positioning is represented by coordinates of a point in space.
  • Geodetic markers are points with accurately established relative and absolute positions, forming a network used for triangulation.
  • Latitude is easier to calculate in ocean navigation, while longitude requires a precise clock for accuracy.

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