PCOL 9-1~9-2 Treatment of Addiction

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28 Questions

Which route of heroin administration results in the most rapid surge of euphoria?

Injecting

What effect does MOR activation have on GABA action?

Inhibits GABA action

What is responsible for the opioid crisis, often referred to as 'hillbilly heroin'?

Prescription opioids like slow-release oxycodone or morphine tablets

What is a common consequence of heroin use related to injection of contaminated drugs?

Collapsed veins

What is the mechanism of action of buprenorphine?

It is a partial agonist that occupies the receptor and prevents the effect of full agonists

What is a potential risk associated with methadone use?

It has a high risk of overdose due to its long half-life

What is the implication of GAT1 in the process of counter-adaptation?

It is upregulated, leading to less inhibition of GABA

What is the effect of naloxone when combined with buprenorphine?

It inhibits the effects of buprenorphine when taken orally

What is a characteristic of rapid detox treatment?

It does not support through withdrawal symptoms

What is the primary effect of nicotine on dopamine (DA) neurons?

Increases DA release

What is a common effect of nicotine on the body's physiological functions?

Increases blood pressure and heart rate

What is the effect of nicotine on adrenal glands?

Increases adrenaline release, leading to increased blood pressure and heart rate

What is a reason for the difficulty in studying addicted populations?

Overlap of mental disorders and multiple addictions

Which type of treatment reduces cravings and satisfaction of smoking due to receptor occupancy?

Partial Agonists

Which treatment option may help in combination with Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and has side effects including significant drowsiness and constipation?

Mecamylamine

Which treatment results in antibodies that bind nicotine, has no effect on craving, and is no better than placebo?

Vaccine

Which antidepressant has a similar efficacy to NRT, with side effects including lower seizure threshold and sedation?

Bupropion

What are the effects of alcohol on the body?

Enhances GABA and Gly transmission

What are the counter-adaptations to alcohol use?

Causes hypersensitivity to glutamate

What are the potential neurological effects of alcohol dependence?

Neurological degeneration in the cortex and cerebellum

What is the implication of alcohol on normal breathing?

Inhibits normal breathing

Which medication has the potential to be hepatotoxic at high doses but is safer when injected?

Naltrexone

Which medication is known to cause flush, palpitations, and nausea as a result of blocking aldehyde dehydrogenase?

Disulfiram

Which medication may inhibit NMDA-Rs and has a similar efficacy to naltrexone?

Acamprosate

Which medication is an anti-epileptic and may alter phosphorylation state of Na+, Ca2+, GABA, and Gly channels/receptors?

Topiramate

Which medication has the potential to significantly reduce drinking but with variable results, and has some evidence of better outcomes based on polymorphisms in kainate receptors?

Topiramate

Which type of treatment reduces cravings and satisfaction of smoking due to receptor occupancy?

Agonist

What is a potential use of vaccines in addiction treatment?

Reducing cravings and satisfaction

Study Notes

Addiction and Drug Use in Australia

  • Addiction is defined as a state where drug use continues despite potential or actual harm to the user.
  • In Australia, 84% of the population uses alcohol, 17% uses nicotine, and 11% uses cannabis recreationally.

Demographics and Reasons for Drug Use

  • The 20-29 year old age group is the highest user of drugs.
  • Drugs are used for various reasons, including:
    • To feel good: new sensations, pleasure, and community.
    • To feel better: self-medication, escape problems, lessen anxiety, reduce fear, and reduce depression.

Economic Costs of Drug Use

  • The total cost of drug use in Australia is estimated to be:
    • $18.3 billion for alcohol.
    • $31.5 billion for nicotine, which accounts for 1/8 of the Australian disease burden.
    • $8.2 billion for illicit drugs.
  • The costs arise from lost productivity, criminal activity, healthcare, accidents, and damage.

Prevalence of Addiction

  • Not all users are addicted, with:
    • Only 7.2% of alcohol users drinking daily, and 39.5% drinking weekly.
    • 15.9% of nicotine users smoking daily.
    • No specific data available for cannabis users.

Test your knowledge about drug use and addiction in Australia with this quiz. Explore the prevalence of recreational drug use among different age groups and understand the reasons behind it. Learn about the potential harm and effects associated with drug addiction.

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