Drug Interactions

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38 Questions

Which hormone is primarily responsible for inducing menopause in women?

Estrogen

Which of the following activities are associated with phytoestrogens?

Reduction of blood lipids

What are some common symptoms of menopause?

Hot flashes

Which of the following medications is contraindicated when used with hypericum dry extract?

Cyclosporine

What is the potential undesirable effect of hypericum dry extract?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Which stimulant is present in tea, coffee, and cocoa?

Caffeine

Which plant is used for cognitive enhancement in neurodegenerative diseases?

Ginkgo Biloba

Which plant is known for its anti-inflammatory effect?

Prunus Africana

Which plant is used for the relief of mild nervous tension and sleep disorders?

Valeriana officinalis

Which plant is used in combination with valerian for sedative and hypnotic effects?

Melissa officinalis

Which plant has constituents that increase the concentration of GABA in the brain?

Valeriana officinalis

Which plant is commonly used for mild and moderate forms of depression?

St. John's Wort

What is considered the antidepressant activity constituent in St. John's Wort?

Hypericin

What are the adverse effects of St. John's Wort?

Gastrointestinal symptoms, confusion

Which medicinal products can have important interactions with St. John's Wort?

Anticonvulsants, ciclosporin, digoxin

Which plant is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

Serenoa Repens

What are the active components of Acetosa Racemose (Cimicifugae Racemosae Rhizome/Black Cohosh)?

Cimicifugosides and Flavonoids

What is the recommended posology and method of administration for Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto)?

Long term oral use

What are the potential adverse effects of Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto)?

Gastrointestinal disorders and acute hepatitis

Which of the following is a major active constituent of Phytoestrogens?

Coumestrol

What is the potential benefit of a diet high in soya for menopausal women?

Reduced risk of breast cancer

Which receptor does Phytoestrogens have high affinity for?

β receptor

Which plant is used historically for treating nervous excitability and insomnia?

Valeriana officinalis

Which plant is used for the relief of mild nervous tension and sleep disorders?

Valeriana officinalis

Which plant has constituents that increase the concentration of GABA in the brain?

Valeriana officinalis

Which plant is used in combination with valerian for sedative and hypnotic effects?

Melissa officinalis

Which medication is contraindicated when used with hypericum dry extract?

Cyclosporine

Which stimulant is present in tea, coffee, and cocoa?

Caffeine

Which plant is commonly used for mild and moderate forms of depression?

Hypericum

What are the potential adverse effects of Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto)?

Nausea and constipation

Which plant is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto)

What are the active components of Acetosa Racemose (Cimicifugae Racemosae Rhizome/Black Cohosh)?

Several cimicifugosides, Flavonoids

What is the potential undesirable effect of hypericum dry extract?

GI disorders (nausea, abdominal pain)

What is the recommended posology and method of administration for Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto)?

Long term oral use

Which neurotransmitters does Hypericum perforatum inhibit the uptake of?

Serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, GABA

What are the potential adverse effects of St. John's Wort?

Gastrointestinal symptoms, confusion, drug interactions

Which pharmaceutical form is well-established for the use of Hypericum perforatum?

Solid dosage forms for oral use

Which medicinal products can have important interactions with St. John's Wort?

Anticonvulsant, ciclosporin, digoxin, HIV protease inhibitors, oral contraceptives, tacrolimus, warfarin

Study Notes

Hormones and Menopause

  • The hormone primarily responsible for inducing menopause in women is not specified.

Phytoestrogens

  • Phytoestrogens are associated with activities such as:
    • Soy consumption
    • Legume intake
    • Flaxseed intake
  • Phytoestrogens have a high affinity for estrogen receptors.

Symptomology

  • Common symptoms of menopause include:
    • Hot flashes
    • Night sweats
    • Mood changes
    • Sleep disturbances
    • Vaginal dryness

Hypericum and Interactions

  • Hypericum dry extract can interact with:
    • Cyclosporin
    • Warfarin
    • Oral contraceptives
  • The potential undesirable effect of hypericum dry extract is:
    • Induction of CYP3A4
  • Hypericum perforatum:
    • Inhibits the uptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine
    • Is commonly used for mild and moderate forms of depression
    • Has potential adverse effects such as:
      • Gastrointestinal disturbances
      • Allergic reactions
      • Fatigue
    • Is available in pharmaceutical forms such as:
      • Tablets
      • Capsules
      • Tea

Herbal Remedies

  • Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) is used:
    • For the relief of mild nervous tension and sleep disorders
    • In combination with other herbs for sedative and hypnotic effects
  • Melissae (Lemon balm) is used for cognitive enhancement in neurodegenerative diseases
  • Salvia officinalis (Sage) is known for its anti-inflammatory effect
  • Piper methysticum (Kava) has constituents that increase the concentration of GABA in the brain

Saw Palmetto and BPH

  • Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto) is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • The recommended posology and method of administration for Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto) is:
    • 160-320 mg/day of lipidosterolic extract
    • Orally, in 1-2 divided doses
  • The potential adverse effects of Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto) are:
    • Gastrointestinal disturbances
    • Headache
    • Dizziness

Other

  • The stimulant present in tea, coffee, and cocoa is caffeine
  • Cimicifuga racemosa (Black Cohosh) is used for the relief of menopausal symptoms
  • The active components of Acetosa Racemose (Cimicifugae Racemosae Rhizome/Black Cohosh) are:
    • Triterpene glycosides
    • Phenolic acids

Drug Interactions Quiz: Test your knowledge on the contraindicated drug combinations and potential reduction of plasma concentrations. Learn about the impact on hormonal contraceptives and the effects of hypericum dry extract. Challenge yourself and expand your understanding of pharmacodynamic interactions!

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