Determinants of Health (Social-ecological Model)

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30 Questions

Which factor includes cognitive abilities, educational background, and past experiences?

Intellectual Dimension

How does long-term stress affect the body according to the text?

Affects the body systems

Which of the following is NOT listed as a risk factor of illness in the text?


How does the emotional dimension impact health habits according to the text?

Negatively affects health habits under stress

What example is given for the physical dimension as a risk factor of illness?

Elderly person with heart disease

Which factor influences how a person responds to teaching about health and healthcare during illness?

Intellectual dimension

What aspect of health and illness does the environmental dimension focus on?

Housing and sanitation

How does the socio-cultural dimension impact health?

It influences economic level and lifestyle

Which group is less likely to seek healthcare according to the text?

Low-income groups

What is considered a risk factor for illness according to the text?

Living in a polluted city

How does self-concept influence an individual's reaction to stress and illness?

It plays a role in how they react to stress and illness

What is an example provided in the text related to the spiritual dimension?

Opposition to blood transfusions by Jehovah Witnesses

What is the focus of the interpersonal level of determinants of health?

Family, friends, and peers interactions with health professionals

At what level are rules, policies, and informal structures in workplaces and schools considered as determinants of health?

Institutional/organizational level

Which level of determinants of health includes a focus on social networks and community expectations?

Community level

What is the primary focus of tertiary preventive care?

Providing care to those already diagnosed with a disease to prevent complications

What is the key aspect of primary preventive care in the context of well population?

Health-risk assessment

Which level of determinants of health focuses on policies and structures that regulate health action?

Policy and systems level

What is the primary focus of secondary preventive care?

Early detection of disease and prompt intervention

Which activity is not associated with primary level prevention?

Wound care

What is the primary goal of tertiary preventive care?

To reduce disability and help patients function at their best

Which intervention is typical at the tertiary level of prevention?

Teaching individuals how to recognize and prevent complications

What type of information is provided at the primary level of prevention?

Accident and disease-prevention information

Which activity belongs to secondary preventive care?

Medication administration

What is the most common health risk among healthy people according to the text?


Which term refers to the number of cases of disease that have their onset during a prescribed period of time?


What is the most common risk factor for non-communicable diseases in Lebanon?

Overweight and Obesity

Which term is a measure of deaths in a given population or location?


Among the listed health risks, which one is not included in the top 3 most common risks?


What does morbidity measure?

Disease incidence or prevalence in a population

Study Notes

Public Health Functions

  • Enforce laws and regulations to protect health and ensure safety
  • Link people to needed personal health services
  • Assure a competent public health care workforce
  • Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
  • Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

Factors Affecting Health and Illness

  • Physical Dimension: Genetic inheritance, Age, developmental level, Race, and Sex
  • Emotional Dimension: How the mind affects body function and influences health
  • Intellectual Dimension: Cognitive abilities, educational background, and past experiences
  • Environmental Dimension: Housing, sanitation, climate, and pollution of air, food, and water
  • Socio-cultural Dimension: Economic level, lifestyle, family, and culture
  • Spiritual Dimension: Spiritual and religious beliefs

Basic Human Needs

  • A person whose needs are met is considered healthy
  • One or more unmet need → Risk for illness


  • Incorporates how the person feels about self (self-esteem) and body image
  • Affects the way the individual reacts to stress and illness

Determinants of Health (Social-Ecological Model)

  • Individual or Intrapersonal level: Focusing on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and social and cultural norms toward health
  • Interpersonal level: Focusing on family, friends, peers, and interactions with health professionals
  • Institutional/organizational level: Focusing on rules, policies, and informal structures in workplaces and schools
  • Community level: Focusing on social networks, norms, and community expectations
  • Policy and systems level: Focusing on policies and structures that regulate health action

Levels of Preventive Care

  • Primary Preventive Care: Directed toward promoting health and preventing the development of disease processes
    • Focuses on health-risk assessment and immunizations, family planning services, and teaching breast self-examination
  • Secondary Preventive Care: Focuses on early detection of disease, prompt intervention, and health maintenance for patients experiencing problems
    • Focuses on health screenings, wound care, medication administration, diet plan, and education programs
  • Tertiary Preventive Care: Focuses on reducing disability and helping rehabilitate patients to a maximum level of functioning
    • Focuses on teaching persons how to recognize and prevent complications, physical therapy, and referring patients to support groups

Health Risks

  • Common health risks include:
    • Suicide
    • Overweight and Obesity
    • Smoking
    • Substance Abuse
    • Communicable diseases
    • Sexuality transmitted infection (HIV/AIDS)
    • Malignancies (cancers)
    • Injury and Violence
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes

Diseases Prevalence in Lebanon

  • Statistics about health risks/problems in Lebanon
  • Communicable Diseases Surveillance in Lebanon according to age

Definition of Terms

  • Incidence: The number of cases of disease that have their onset during a prescribed period of time
  • Prevalence: The number of cases of a disease, infected people or people with some other attribute present during a particular interval of time
  • Morbidity: A measure of disease incidence or prevalence in a given population, location or other grouping of interest
  • Mortality: A measure of deaths in a given population, location or other grouping of interest
  • Signs: Objective indication of disease or abnormality detected by the examiner through using special methods of examination

Explore the various personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that play a role in determining health outcomes according to the social-ecological model. Learn about the five levels including individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and public policy levels.

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