Dental Anatomy and Furcation Pathology

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36 Questions

What is the main factor leading to clinical attachment loss (CAL) in the furcation area?

Accumulation of plaque biofilm

Which classification is the most commonly used for furcation involvement?

Glickman’s classification

What are the characteristics of Glickman’s classification Grade II furcation involvement?

Remaining alveolar bone attached to tooth, may be early or advanced

What local anatomical factor has a direct proportional relationship with the amount of attachment loss in the furcation area?

Root length

What local anatomical factor affects the rate of plaque deposition and complicates oral hygiene procedures in the furcation area?

Interradicular dimension

In which type of furcation involvement is soft tissue recession apically and furcation opening clinically visible?

Glickman’s classification Grade IV

What is the main objective of treatment for furcation lesions?

Elimination of plaque biofilm from exposed surfaces of the root complex

What treatment option aims to maintain the furcation without surgical intervention?

Nonsurgical mechanical debridement (Scaling/ root planning)

Which type of cervical enamel projection (CEP) extends horizontally into the furcation entrance, complicating plaque removal and being a local factor in the development of gingivitis and periodontitis?

Masters & Hoskins Grade III CEPs

What problem complicates the accessibility of DeMarco curettes in non-surgical therapy for furcation lesions?

Problem with accessibility of DeMarco curettes

What should be removed to facilitate maintenance in cases of cervical enamel projections (CEPs)?

The CEPs themselves

What is considered a key factor in treatment planning for furcation lesions?

Divergence degree of interradicular dimension

What is the suitable treatment for grade I and early grade II furcation involvement?

Tunnel preparation

What is a possible side effect of furcationplasty?

Root caries

When is root resection recommended as a treatment option?

For advanced grade II furcation involvement

What is the objective of tunnel preparation as a treatment option?

To remove bone from the furcation to produce an open tunnel

What is a common indication for hemisection as a treatment option?

Grade II furcation involvement in mandibular molars

What is the aim of regeneration as a treatment option for furcation problems?

To complete elimination of the defect within the inter-radicular space

When is extraction of furcation involved teeth recommended?

For advanced grade III furcation involvement

What is the main difference between root resection and hemisection as treatments for furcation problems?

Root resection removes both roots, while hemisection removes only one root

What should be done after fixation of the membrane in regeneration treatment?

Full coverage to prevent membrane exposure

When are bone grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) recommended as a treatment option?

For vertical bone defects only

What are some possible side effects of tunnel preparation as a treatment option?

Root sensitivity and root caries

What is a possible side effect of root hemisection as a treatment option?

Pulp necrosis

What is the furcation?

The anatomic area of a multi-rooted tooth where the roots diverge

What is the furcation invasion?

The pathologic resorption of bone within a furcation

What is the height of the furcation trunk?

The distance between the CEJ and the line of root separation

What are the furcation entrances?

The earliest areas of furcation involvement

How is the diagnosis of furcation defects carried out?

Through clinical examination (careful probing) using a Nabors probe and Transgingival sounding

What is the aim of proper diagnosis of furcation defects?

All of the above

What is the function of Nabors probe?

To make direct contact with bone forced under LA through the gingiva

What is transgingival sounding used for?

To measure the depth of a furcation defect from a reference point on the root trunk

What is radiographic examination used for in diagnosing furcation defects?

To visualize and determine the extent and configuration of the furcation defect

What contributes to furcation invasion?

The type and direction of forces applied during chewing

What does Nabors probe make direct contact with?

The bone forced under LA through the gingiva

What does Transgingival sounding measure?

The depth of a furcation defect from a reference point on the root trunk

Test your knowledge of dental anatomy and furcation pathology with this quiz. Explore concepts such as furcation invasion, root trunk, height of the furcation trunk, furcation fornix, and furcation entrances.

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