Database Management Essentials

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12 Questions

Which activity is NOT part of information management according to the text?

Data collection and processing

What is the main focus of information management?

Information needs identification

What is the pivotal model that helps align technology and organizational strategies?


Why are databases considered valuable assets for decision making?

They help store information efficiently

What is the difference between data and information?

Data is unorganized facts, while information is processed data

What is the primary function of a Database Management System (DBMS)?

Data organization and retrieval

What is the difference between data and information?

Data refers to raw facts, while information is the result of processing data.

What is structural dependence in data processing?

Access to a file is dependent on its own structure.

What term describes the situation where the same data is stored in different locations and unlikely to be updated consistently?

Data redundancy

Why is lack of design and data modeling skills a problem in data processing?

It hinders communication between the designer, user, and developer.

What does data inconsistency refer to in terms of data processing?

Different and conflicting versions of the same data occurring at different places.

What do we call the abnormal occurrences that happen when all changes in redundant data are not made correctly?

Update anomalies

Study Notes


  • Learn the difference between data and information
  • Understand what a database is, its types, and its value in decision making
  • Appreciate the importance of database design
  • Study how modern databases evolved from file systems
  • Identify flaws in file system data management
  • Learn about the main components of a database system and the functions of a database management system (DBMS)

Information Management

  • Involves six related activities: identification of information needs, acquisition and creation of information, analysis and interpretation of information, organization and storage of information, information access and dissemination, and information use and archiving
  • Is the management of organizational processes and systems that acquire, create, organize, distribute, and use information


  • Gives a strong clue as to the layers involved in aligning technology and organizational strategies
  • Recognizes that information management is an investment that must deliver meaningful results

Data vs. Information

  • Data refers to raw facts about a topic or item
  • Information is the result of combining, comparing, and performing calculations on data
  • Data gives meaning to the raw facts through processing

File System and Data Processing

  • File systems have structural and data dependence, which makes it difficult to change file structure or data storage characteristics
  • Data dependence affects data access, and data storage characteristics do not affect data access in data independence
  • Logical data format is how humans view data, while physical data format is how computers work with data
  • File system structure makes it difficult to combine data from multiple sources, leading to data redundancy and security breaches
  • Data redundancy leads to data inconsistency, data anomalies, and update anomalies

Problems with File System Data Processing

  • Structural dependence: access to a file is dependent on its own structure
  • Data dependence: data access changes when data storage characteristics change
  • Data redundancy: same data stored unnecessarily in different places
  • Data inconsistency: different and conflicting versions of the same data occur at different places
  • Data anomalies: abnormalities when all changes in redundant data are not made correctly
  • Update anomalies: insertion, deletion, and modification anomalies occur when data is not updated consistently

Learn about the basics of database management including the difference between data and information, types of databases, database design, evolution from file systems, flaws in file system data management, components of a database system, and functions of a database management system (DBMS).

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