Craniofacial Development Quiz

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28 Questions

What is the primitive stomatodeum?

A wide, shallow depression in the developing face

What separates the stomatodeum from the developing heart?

Branchial arches

How many branchial arches are there?

6

What is the basic structure of each branchial arch?

Cartilage, nerve, and artery

What is the significance of the first pharyngeal arch?

It forms the bones of the face

What derives from the maxillary process of the first pharyngeal arch?

The structures that constitute the maxilla and the palate

Which cartilage is derived from the first pharyngeal arch?

Meckel's cartilage

Which muscle is derived from the second pharyngeal arch?

Stylohyoid

What is the primary location of the mesoderm at the end of gastrulation?

Between the ectoderm and endoderm layers

Which nerve is associated with the first pharyngeal arch?

CNV trigeminal

Which of the following tissues is derived from the endoderm germ layer?

Gut

What is the typical age range for surgically correcting a cleft palate?

3-8 months

Which pharyngeal arch is associated with the constrictors of pharynx?

Fourth pharyngeal arch

What is the correct sequence of germ layers from outermost to innermost at the end of gastrulation?

Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

What is a characteristic feature of Mandibulofacial dystostosis (Treacher-Collins syndrome)?

Underdeveloped facial bones and micrognathia

Which of the following tissues is NOT derived from the mesoderm germ layer?

Epidermis

Which cartilage is derived from the third pharyngeal arch?

Greater horns of hyoid

What is often associated with cleft palate?

Mandibulofacial dystostosis (Treacher-Collins syndrome)

Which pharyngeal arch is associated with the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Sixth pharyngeal arch

What is a common feature of Acro-facial dysostosis?

A prominent forehead

How many germ layers are present in the embryo at the end of gastrulation?

3

What is Hemifacial microsomia characterized by?

Great variability in clinical manifestations

What may be associated with Nager syndrome?

Both A and B

Which of the following cranial nerves innervates the sensory receptors in the 1st arch of the tongue?

Cranial nerve V

At which week of development does the distal tip of the tongue form?

6 weeks

Which of the following muscles is derived from the head mesoderm and innervated by the vagus nerve X?

Palatoglossus muscle

What is the term for the congenital anomaly where the tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth?

Ankylogossia

Which of the following structures is formed from the median tongue bud?

Anterior 2/3 of the tongue

Study Notes

Pharyngeal Arches and Pouches

  • Form in the 4th and 5th weeks of development
  • 5 arches (1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) and 5 corresponding pouches
  • Each arch consists of a 'bar' of mesenchymal tissue, lined on the outside by ectoderm and inside by endoderm
  • Separated from each other by deep clefts on the outside and pouches on the inside

Branchial Arches Structure

  • Cartilage, nerve, and artery components
  • Ectoderm outside, mesenchyme in the middle, and endoderm inside
  • Each arch has its own cranial nerve

First Pharyngeal Arch

  • Gives origin to the bones of the two lower thirds of the face
  • Divided into maxillary and mandibular processes
  • Maxillary process forms the maxilla, premaxilla, zygomatic bone, and squamous part of the temporal bone
  • Innervated by cranial nerve V (trigeminal)

Tongue Development

  • Multiple origins: foramen cecum, median tongue bud, and posterior tongue buds
  • Innervated by multiple nerves: cranial nerve V (trigeminal), facial nerve VII, glossopharyngeal IX, and vagus nerve X
  • Muscles from occipital somites (hypoglossal nerve XII) and head mesoderm (vagus nerve X)

Pharyngeal Arch Cartilages

  • 1st arch: Meckel's cartilage (mandibular prominence)
  • 2nd arch: Reichert's or hyoid cartilage
  • 3rd arch: none
  • 4th arch: none
  • 6th arch: none

Pharyngeal Arch Muscles

  • 1st arch: muscles of mastication
  • 2nd arch: muscles of facial expression
  • 3rd arch: stylopharyngeus
  • 4th arch: constrictors of pharynx
  • 6th arch: intrinsic muscles of the larynx

Craniofacial Development

  • Derived from the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  • Ectoderm forms epidermis and nervous system
  • Mesoderm forms skeleton, muscle, dermis, kidney, gonads, and blood
  • Endoderm forms gut, liver, lungs, thyroid, and pancreas

Pharyngeal Arch Defects

  • Cleft palate
  • Mandibulofacial dystostosis (Treacher-Collins syndrome)
  • Acro-facial dysostosis
  • Nager Syndrome
  • Hemifacial microsomia (oto-mandibular syndrome)

This quiz covers the development of pharyngeal arches, pouches and clefts, and their association with the embryonic development of the craniofacial region. It also reviews embryological anomalies and syndromes.

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