## Questions and Answers

What does percent by mass (w/w) measure in a solution?

What does percent by volume (v/v) measure in a solution?

What does mole fraction measure in a solution?

If 20 grams of sugar are dissolved in 80 grams of water, what is the percent by mass (w/w) of the sugar?

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If 30 milliliters of ethanol are mixed with 70 milliliters of water, what is the percent by volume (v/v) of ethanol?

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What does the percent by mass (m/m) measure in a solution?

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What does the mole fraction measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by volume (v/v) measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by mass per volume measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by volume per volume measure in a solution?

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What does the mole fraction measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by mass (m/m) measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by volume (v/v) measure in a solution?

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What does the percent by mass per volume measure in a solution?

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If 25 grams of salt are dissolved in 125 grams of water, what is the percent by mass (w/w) of the salt?

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## Study Notes

### Solution Concentration Measures

- Percent by mass (w/w) measures the mass of the solute per unit mass of the solution.
- Percent by volume (v/v) measures the volume of the solute per unit volume of the solution.
- Mole fraction measures the number of moles of the solute per unit total number of moles in the solution.

### Calculating Percent by Mass (w/w)

- If 20 grams of sugar are dissolved in 80 grams of water, the percent by mass (w/w) of the sugar is 20g/(20g+80g) x 100% = 20%.
- If 25 grams of salt are dissolved in 125 grams of water, the percent by mass (w/w) of the salt is 25g/(25g+125g) x 100% = 16.7%.

### Calculating Percent by Volume (v/v)

- If 30 milliliters of ethanol are mixed with 70 milliliters of water, the percent by volume (v/v) of ethanol is 30mL/(30mL+70mL) x 100% = 30%.

### Other Concentration Measures

- Percent by mass (m/m) measures the mass of the solute per unit mass of the solvent.
- Percent by mass per volume measures the mass of the solute per unit volume of the solution.
- Percent by volume per volume measures the volume of the solute per unit volume of the solution.
- Mole fraction measures the ratio of the number of moles of the solute to the total number of moles in the solution.

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## Description

Test your knowledge of different ways to express the concentration of solutions, including percent by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, percent by volume, and ppm.