Computer Architecture vs Organization

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What is the primary focus of computer architecture?

The overall design of a computer system, including hardware and software components

What is the main benefit of an open architecture?

Easier upgradeability and add-on functionality

What is the process called when breaking down larger problems into smaller, independent parts that can be executed simultaneously by multiple processors?

Parallel computing

What are the three basic components of every computer?

Input Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU), and Output Unit

What is the mission of IEEE?

To promote technological innovation for the benefit of humanity

What does ISO stand for?

International Organization for Standardization

How many milliseconds (ms) are in 1 second?

10^3 ms

How many nanoseconds (ns) are in 1 millisecond?

10^6 ns

What is the primary role of computer architecture in designing a computer?

To fix the architecture first

What is Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) also known as?

Computer Architecture

What is the primary function of the program counter (PC)?

To keep track of memory addresses

What is the name of the register that stores the fetched instruction?

Instruction Register (IR)

What is the term for the process of examining the fetched instruction to determine its operation?

Decode

Which of the following architectural categories is concerned with the logical functions of a computer system?

Instruction Set Architecture

What is the main function of an ISA?

To serve as an interface between hardware and software

What does computer organization deal with?

The structural relationship between hardware components

What is the benefit of open architecture in computer systems?

Easy upgrading and swapping of components

What is the main difference between computer organization and computer architecture?

Organization deals with how it's done, while architecture deals with what it does

What is the role of the CPU in the fetch-decode-execute cycle?

To retrieve, examine, and execute instructions

What is an example of an organizational quality that is invisible to the programmer?

The interfacing of computer and peripherals

What is the focus of computer architecture?

The functional behavior of computer systems

What is the purpose of an ISA?

To specify how the CPU is controlled by the software

What is classified into three categories based on the number of address fields?

CPU organization

What does computer organization consist of?

Physical units like circuit designs, peripherals, and adders

Study Notes

Computer Organization and Architecture

  • Computer Architecture refers to the overall design of a computer system, including hardware and software components and their interactions.
  • Computer Organization refers to the arrangement and interconnection of hardware components, implementing the provided computer architecture.

Open Architecture

  • Open Architecture is a design approach that allows easy upgrading and addition of functions to a computer system.
  • It enables simpler integration of different computer systems or programs.
  • Software developers use open software architecture to encourage other developers to write applications and add-ons.

Parallel Computing

  • Parallel Computing breaks down larger problems into smaller, independent parts that can be executed simultaneously by multiple processors.
  • Processors communicate via shared memory, and results are combined upon completion as part of an overall algorithm.

Basic Components of a Computer

  • Every computer has three basic components: Input Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU), and Output Unit.

IEEE and ISO

  • IEEE's mission is to foster technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.
  • ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization, and its name is an acronym.

Time and Memory Units

  • 1 second equals 10^3 milliseconds (ms).
  • 1 second equals 10^6 microseconds (µs).
  • 1 millisecond equals 10^6 nanoseconds (ns).

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

  • ISA stands for Instruction Set Architecture, which defines how the CPU is controlled by the software
  • It acts as an interface between the hardware and the software, specifying what the processor is capable of doing and how it gets done

Computer Organization vs Computer Architecture

  • Computer Organization describes how it does it, deals with structural relationships, and handles low-level design issues
  • Computer Architecture describes what the computer does, deals with functional behavior, and handles high-level design issues
  • Organization is concerned with the implementation of the architecture, whereas architecture is concerned with the functional behavior of the computer system

Computer Organization

  • Deals with physical units like circuit designs, peripherals, and adders
  • Handles the segments of the network in a system and escapes the software programmer’s detection
  • Organizational qualities include hardware elements that are invisible to the programmer, such as interfacing of computer and peripherals, memory technologies, and control signals

Computer Architecture

  • Deals with the functional behavior of computer systems and is concerned with the hardware
  • Viewed as a series of instructions, addressing modes, and registers
  • Comprises logical functions such as instruction sets, registers, data types, and addressing modes
  • Examples of architectural categories include Von-Neumann Architecture, Harvard Architecture, Instruction Set Architecture, Micro-architecture, and System Design

Open Architecture

  • Allows adding, upgrading, and swapping components with other computers easily
  • Enables flexibility and customization in computer systems

Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle

  • A fundamental process in the operation of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU)
  • Consists of three stages: Fetch, Decode, and Execute
  • Fetch:
    • Retrieves the next instruction from memory using the program counter (PC)
    • Stores the fetched instruction in the instruction register (IR)
  • Decode:
    • Examines the fetched instruction to determine what operation it represents
    • Determines the operation and operands required for the instruction

Learn the difference between computer architecture and computer organization, including their definitions and how they interact with each other.

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