Geography June exam P1 (Hard)
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Geography June exam P1 (Hard)

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@GreatestTiger

Questions and Answers

What is the primary source of energy for the Earth's atmosphere?

Insolation

Which of the following is NOT a store within the atmosphere?

Terrestrial radiation

What elements play crucial roles in cloud formation and radiation reflection?

Gases and solids

Which of the following gases is considered a variable gas in the atmosphere?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is moisture mainly released from the atmosphere?

<p>Via precipitation processes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is NOT included in the category of non-gases in the atmosphere?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of ozone within the stratosphere?

<p>Absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere is known as the coldest layer where meteors burn up?

<p>Mesosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for the temperature increase with altitude in the stratosphere?

<p>Presence of ozone layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gas, despite being present in small amounts, contributes significantly to the greenhouse effect?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to temperature decreases with altitude in the troposphere?

<p>Influence of weather processes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a significant role played by particulates in the atmosphere?

<p>Aiding in cloud formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gases are classified as inert gases in the atmosphere?

<p>(He) Helium and (Ne) Neon</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere extends up to 12 km and is where all weather processes occur?

<p>Troposphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key consequence of ozone depletion due to human activities?

<p>Health and environmental issues from increased UV radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor influences the intensity and duration of sunlight received on Earth at different times of the year?

<p>Earth's tilt and orbit around the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does temperature generally decrease with altitude in the troposphere?

<p>As a result of the distance from the Earth's heat source</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which atmospheric process involves the movement of heat by mass motion of heated molecules?

<p>Convection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do coastal regions typically experience more moderated temperatures compared to inland areas?

<p>Mainly due to proximity to the sea and water's specific heat capacity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What state of water in the atmosphere is crucial for weather and climate impacts?

<p>Gaseous Water Vapor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process occurs when water vapor cools to form liquid water in the atmosphere?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes snowflakes, hail, or ice crystals to form in colder climates and at high altitudes?

<p>Sublimation of solid ice</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor that affects temperatures of nearby land areas in relation to ocean currents?

<p>Ocean currents</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main reason why increased greenhouse gases can lead to rising sea levels?

<p>Melting ice caps and glaciers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are mountain peaks near the equator sometimes snow-capped despite their proximity to warmer regions?

<p>Due to their distance from the Earth's heat source</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process involves direct shifting from solid ice to gaseous water vapor?

<p>Sublimation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of Earth's water resources is freshwater?

<p>2.5%</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor contributes to developing countries often experiencing greater devastation from earthquakes?

<p>Less robust emergency response capabilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which environmental mechanism of rainfall is primarily driven by the heating of the Earth's surface?

<p>Convectional Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common immediate impact of earthquakes on infrastructure?

<p>Destruction of buildings</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do developed countries often fare better in earthquake impacts compared to developing countries?

<p>Better infrastructure and preparedness strategies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What forms when vapor condenses directly onto surfaces?

<p>Dew</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cloud type can lead to thunderstorms?

<p>Cumulonimbus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to resource shortages following earthquakes?

<p>Disruption of utility lines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What marks the transformation of water vapor back into liquid or solid forms in cloud formation?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which risk is associated with earthquakes in terms of health and safety?

<p>Potential secondary disasters like chemical spills</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the majority of Earth's water stored?

<p>Oceans</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of rain occurs when warm, moist air is lifted over cooler air in frontal systems?

<p>Cyclonic or Frontal Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a measure of the current amount of water vapor relative to the maximum possible at the same temperature?

<p>Relative Humidity</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Forms when temperatures drop below freezing, and dew or atmospheric moisture freezes' describes which form of precipitation?

<p>Snow</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of clouds often indicate an approaching cold front but do not produce precipitation?

<p>Cirrus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological activity is associated with Constructive Plate Margins?

<p>Mild volcanic activity and earthquake activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which location is an example of a Destructive Plate Margin?

<p>Japan</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological feature is created by Collision Margins?

<p>Mountain ranges</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key characteristic of the Recumbent Fold?

<p>Nearly horizontal limbs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fold involves extreme pressure causing rock breakage and sliding over itself?

<p>Overthrust Fold (Nappe)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fold is characterized by one limb steeply inclined similar to an anticline?

<p>Overfold</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fold forms a downward U-shaped structure?

<p>Syncline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process shapes the Earth's crust through tectonic plate movements?

<p>Folding and faulting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key characteristic of Conservative Plate Margins?

<p>Plates slide past each other</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of using satellite images in meteorology?

<p>To monitor large-scale weather patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which spectrum of satellite imagery is essential for assessing moisture distribution in the atmosphere?

<p>Water Vapor Spectrum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does wide spacing between isobars on synoptic weather maps indicate?

<p>Calm conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What layer of the Earth remains solid despite extreme heat due to immense pressures at Earth's center?

<p>Inner Core</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is composed primarily of nickel and iron?

<p>Outer Core</p> Signup and view all the answers

How thick is the outer core of the Earth?

<p>~2,250 km</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Earth's mantle mainly composed of?

<p>Solid but plastic-like rock</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the Earth extends approximately 2,900 km downward?

<p>Mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What boundary is marked by the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho)?

<p>Between the Crust and Mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What determines the crystal size within igneous rocks?

<p>The rate of cooling</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which intrusive igneous activity involves magma cooling below the ground?

<p>Laccolith formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of rock forms karst landscapes characterized by caves and springs?

<p>Sedimentary rock</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological concept proposed the theory of continental drift?

<p>Continental drift</p> Signup and view all the answers

What evidence supports the theory of continental drift from a geological perspective?

<p>Matching glacial traces in Brazil and Australia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main driving force behind the movement of tectonic plates?

<p>Mantle convection currents</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is typically associated with the erosion of surrounding material, leaving exposed core-stones?

<p>Tors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of rock often transforms under extreme pressure and temperature without melting?

<p>Metamorphic rock</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of intrusive igneous bodies are typically vertical and cut across existing rock layers?

<p>Dykes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological phenomenon resulted in coal being found in Antarctica, South America, India, Africa, and Australia?

<p>Gondwana breakup</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of mountains are formed by folding at convergent plate boundaries?

<p>Fold Mountains</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is created by rocks being pushed together due to compression?

<p>Block Mountains</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fault is mainly caused by rocks being pulled apart?

<p>Normal Faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of seismic wave moves the ground up and down and sideways, but only through solids?

<p>Secondary Waves (S-waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the logarithmic scale used to measure the energy released by an earthquake?

<p>Richter Scale</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of seismic wave travels fastest through the Earth's crust?

<p>Primary Waves (P-waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes the formation of tsunamis?

<p>Undersea Earthquakes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes major to great earthquakes on the Richter scale?

<p>7 or above on the Richter scale</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of mountains are formed from elevated blocks between faults?

<p>Block Mountains (Horsts)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fault is characterized by horizontal movement causing strike-slip faults?

<p>Strike-Slip Faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the outputs from the atmosphere as mentioned in the text?

<p>Gases and solids, moisture</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are considered as stores within the atmosphere?

<p>Moisture and gases</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a constant gas found in the atmosphere?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What plays crucial roles in cloud formation and radiation reflection in the atmosphere?

<p>Dust, salt, and smoke particles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is primarily released back into space from the atmosphere?

<p>Heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following can exist in various forms within the atmosphere?

<p>Heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What atmospheric process involves the transformation of absorbed short-wave solar radiation into long-wave infrared radiation?

<p>Radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does temperature generally vary with altitude in the troposphere?

<p>It decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for coastal regions experiencing moderated temperatures compared to inland areas?

<p>Specific heat capacity of water</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which primary factor influences rising sea levels affecting coastal and low-lying regions?

<p>Melting glaciers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the visible form of liquid water in the atmosphere, typically seen in clouds and fog?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process involves the cooling of water vapor to form liquid water, leading to cloud formation?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary outcome of enhanced salination due to increased greenhouse gases?

<p>Damaged agriculture and ecosystems</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Sublimation' in the atmosphere refers to the direct shift from solid ice to which state?

<p>Gaseous Water Vapor</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) mark the boundary between?

<p>Crust and Mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What environmental mechanism of precipitation is primarily driven by the heating of the Earth's surface?

<p>Convectional Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary component of the Earth's outer core?

<p>Nickel and Iron</p> Signup and view all the answers

What occurrence contributes to cloud formation as vapor rises, cools, and returns to liquid form?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of clouds are high-altitude, thin, and wispy, often indicating an approaching cold front?

<p>Cirrus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the Earth remains solid despite extreme heat due to immense pressures at Earth's center?

<p>Inner Core</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of all freshwater is stored in ice caps, glaciers, groundwater, soil moisture, and a small fraction in rivers and biological organisms?

<p>2.5%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate thickness of the Earth's inner core?

<p>~1,200 km</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the hydrological cycle, what happens when clouds become oversaturated with water vapor?

<p>Precipitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the semi-fluid layer on which tectonic plates float known as?

<p>Asthenosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which spectrum of satellite imagery is primarily used for night-time meteorology?

<p>Infrared Spectrum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of rain occurs when warm, moist air is lifted over cooler air in frontal systems?

<p>Frontal Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of seismic wave travels through solids but not through liquids or gases?

<p>Secondary Waves (S-Waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Hail is generated in cumulonimbus clouds through the cycling and freezing of water droplets until they become too heavy. What causes this cycling?

<p><strong>Updrafts</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of clouds lead to thunderstorms due to their tall and dark nature?

<p>Cumulonimbus Clouds</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gas, present in small amounts, plays a crucial role in the greenhouse effect?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what altitude does the temperature sharply increase in the atmosphere?

<p>Beyond 80 km up to 480 km</p> Signup and view all the answers

What primarily causes daily temperature changes on Earth?

<p>Earth's rotation on its axis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere is responsible for containing the ozone layer?

<p>Stratosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to the protection of the Earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation?

<p>Ozone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What gas is crucial for photosynthesis but also contributes to global warming when its levels rise?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the troposphere in terms of weather processes?

<p>Where all weather processes occur</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of heat for Earth's atmosphere?

<p>$66%$ absorbed solar radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the Earth's atmosphere contains the coldest temperatures?

<p>$80$ km above Earth's surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common immediate impact of earthquakes on infrastructure?

<p>Destruction to utility lines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor contributing to the greater devastation suffered by developing countries in earthquakes?

<p>Less stringent building codes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which risk is increased as a result of earthquakes according to the text?

<p>Diseases due to contaminated water</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a notable impact of earthquakes on resource availability?

<p>Disruption of water supplies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to the potential secondary disasters associated with earthquakes?

<p>Fires or chemical spills</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinct feature characterizes batholiths?

<p>Large masses of igneous rock formed deep below the Earth's surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process results in the formation of sedimentary rock?

<p>Accumulation, compaction, and solidification of transported sediments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key feature of laccoliths and lopoliths?

<p>Formation between rock layers causing uplift or downward sagging</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a notable landform associated with igneous rocks?

<p>Tors resulting from erosion of surrounding material leaving core-stones exposed</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor significantly influences the Earth's landscape?

<p>Plate tectonics</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Intrusive igneous activity refers to magma solidifying below ground.' What is an example of intrusive igneous activity according to the text?

<p>Magma cooling and solidifying below ground to form various intrusive bodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

'The continents once formed a single supercontinent named Pangaea.' Which continental drift evidence supports this statement?

<p>'Distribution of Fossils' like Lystrosaurus across separated lands</p> Signup and view all the answers

'The lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates moving over the asthenosphere.' What drives the movement of these plates?

<p>'Mantle convection currents' in the upper mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

'The landscape is significantly influenced by geological structures.' What types of rocks primarily determine a landform's resistance to erosion?

<p>'Sedimentary Rock': Characterized by karst landscapes in limestone</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Existing rocks transform under extreme pressure without melting.' Which type of rock undergoes this transformation according to the text?

<p>'Metamorphic Rock' changing mineral composition under pressure and heat</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fault is formed when rocks are being pulled apart?

<p>Normal fault</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is created by elevated blocks formed between faults?

<p>Horsts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What primarily causes the formation of tsunamis?

<p>Earthquakes near coastal areas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which tectonic plate boundary is most commonly associated with reverse faults?

<p>Convergent boundaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process leads to the formation of rift valleys such as the East African Rift Valley?

<p>Tensional forces causing rocks to pull apart</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of seismic wave is responsible for causing the most destruction during an earthquake?

<p>Surface waves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological process creates block mountains between elevated blocks?

<p>Faulting between tectonic plates</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of dramatic scenery in fault-related landscapes?

<p>Movement along fault lines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fault is characterized by horizontal movement causing strike-slip faults like the San Andreas Fault?

<p>Strike-slip fault</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological process is responsible for creating fold mountains such as the Himalayas?

<p>Intense pressure at tectonic plate boundaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fold is characterized by limbs that are nearly horizontal and forms under very high pressure?

<p>Recumbent Fold</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of plate margin is associated with plates moving apart, allowing magma to rise and solidify?

<p>Constructive Margins (Divergent)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological feature is found at plate margins where plates slide past each other without creating or destroying crust?

<p>Transform faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What results from two continental plates colliding, pushing material upward to form mountain ranges like the Himalayas?

<p>Fold mountains and strong earthquakes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT considered an input into the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a non-gas store within the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Dust</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary process for releasing moisture back from the atmosphere?

<p>Precipitation processes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following gases is NOT classified as a variable gas in the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Nitrogen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the outputs from the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Terrestrial radiation and gases/solids emissions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where do noble gases like argon and neon belong within the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Constant gases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the ozone layer in the stratosphere?

<p>Absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which atmospheric layer contains the highest concentration of ozone?

<p>Stratosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor causing temperature increases with altitude in the stratosphere?

<p>Absorption of UV radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to daily temperature changes on Earth due to the rotation of the planet?

<p>Rotation on its axis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gas in the atmosphere is primarily responsible for maintaining Earth's temperature through the greenhouse effect?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key role played by nitrogen in the atmosphere?

<p>Essential for plant growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere experiences the sharpest increase in temperature with altitude?

<p>Thermosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes the formation of noctilucent clouds in the mesosphere?

<p>Meteors burning up</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factor contributes to developed countries suffering less devastation from earthquakes compared to developing countries?

<p>Stringent building codes and earthquake-resistant buildings</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do developing countries often experience greater devastation from earthquakes?

<p>Higher population densities in vulnerable areas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which aspect of an earthquake contributes to an increased risk of diseases according to the text?

<p>Injuries from debris</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the immediate impacts of earthquakes on resources, according to the text?

<p>Depletion of essential resources like drinking water</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor contributes to the immediate impact of earthquakes related to health and safety?

<p>Potential secondary disasters like fires</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of condensation in the atmosphere?

<p>Leading to cloud formation and potential precipitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does convection primarily contribute to energy transfer in the atmosphere?

<p>By moving heat through mass motion of heated molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do coastal regions generally experience more moderated temperatures than inland areas?

<p>Due to the specific heat capacity of water and its ability to distribute heat</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor mainly influences temperatures at different locations based on the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth?

<p>Latitude</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what form does water exist in the atmosphere that significantly impacts weather and climate?

<p>Gaseous water vapor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does temperature generally decrease with altitude in the troposphere?

<p>Due to distance from the Earth's heat source and decreasing air pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What atmospheric condition refers to the maximum ratio of water vapor in the air at a given temperature?

<p>Humidity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which environmental mechanism of rainfall is driven by the heating of the Earth's surface?

<p>Convectional Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of clouds are characterized as tall, dark clouds that can lead to thunderstorms?

<p>Cumulonimbus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process contributes to the formation of snow in colder climates and high altitudes?

<p>Water Vapor Aggregation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which form of precipitation occurs when air cannot hold more moisture?

<p>Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of rain occurs when warm, moist air is lifted over cooler air in frontal systems?

<p>Cyclonic or Frontal Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What marks the transformation of water vapor back into liquid or solid forms in cloud formation?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What role do isobars play in synoptic weather maps?

<p>They represent high and low pressure areas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of using satellite images in modern meteorology?

<p>Providing real-time comprehensive imagery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Earth's outermost solid layer consist of?

<p>Plastic-like rock</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes hail to form in cumulonimbus clouds?

<p>Cycling and freezing of water droplets</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which spectrum of satellite imagery is essential for assessing moisture distribution in the atmosphere?

<p>Infrared Spectrum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What marks the boundary between the Earth's crust and mantle?

<p><em>Mohorovičić Discontinuity</em> (Moho)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of plate margin is associated with plates moving apart, allowing magma to rise and solidify?

<p>Divergent margins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological phenomenon is responsible for the Himalayas' formation?

<p>Overthrust folding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fold is characterized by nearly horizontal limbs and high pressure conditions?

<p>Recumbent fold</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fault is mainly caused by rocks being pulled apart?

<p>Normal fault</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary geological process responsible for creating fold mountains like the Himalayas?

<p>Folding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What landform is typically associated with Recumbent folds?

<p>Mountains</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fold forms under extreme pressure, causing rocks to break and slide over themselves?

<p>'S' fold</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic differentiates Monocline folds from Syncline and Anticline folds?

<p>Direction of tilting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of stress condition typically leads to the formation of Recumbent folds?

<p>Compressive stress</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of the conclusion drawn in the text?

<p>Emphasizing the importance of managing natural resources</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are fold mountains like the Alps, Rockies, and Himalayas suitable for terrace farming?

<p>As a result of being formed from convergent plate boundaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological feature is commonly associated with fault movements and is popular for tourism due to its dramatic landscapes?

<p>Rift Valleys (Grabens)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary outcome of rocks fracturing due to tectonic forces?

<p>Occurrence of earthquakes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which seismic wave type squeezes or stretches the ground while traveling fastest through the Earth's crust?

<p>Primary Waves (P-waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary impact of surface waves during an earthquake?

<p>(Devastating) coastal flooding</p> Signup and view all the answers

(Moderate to Strong) earthquakes, categorized between 5 to 6.9 on the Richter scale, can result in:

<p>(Major to Great) damage leading to loss of life</p> Signup and view all the answers

(Rift Valleys) are characterized as depressed blocks created by fault movements, such as the East African Rift Valley. What is their significance?

<p>(Unique geological features)</p> Signup and view all the answers

(Tsunamis) primarily result from which of the following geological disturbances?

<p>(Undersea) earthquakes or landslides</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary influence on crystal size within igneous rocks?

<p>Rate of cooling</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes sills from dykes in intrusive igneous activity?

<p>Orientation within rock layers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is typically associated with sedimentary rocks like limestone?

<p>Karst landscapes</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do batholiths differ from laccoliths and lopoliths in terms of size?

<p>Batholiths are larger</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key characteristic that differentiates intrusive from extrusive igneous activity?

<p>Depth of cooling</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological process leads to the alteration of mineral composition within rocks?

<p>Metamorphism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What significant role do tectonic plates play in shaping the Earth's surface?

<p>Movement at varying rates</p> Signup and view all the answers

What drives the movement of tectonic plates according to plate tectonics theory?

<p>Mantle convection currents</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes batholiths from laccoliths in terms of formation depth?

<p>Batholiths form at greater depths</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key feature that characterizes metamorphic rock formation?

<p>Extreme pressure and temperature conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of insolation in the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Sustaining life on Earth</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which atmospheric element is responsible for affecting weather patterns?

<p>Heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process contributes to cloud formation and radiation reflection in the atmosphere?

<p>Presence of non-gases like dust</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which atmospheric output involves the release of heat back into space?

<p>Terrestrial radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following gases is considered a variable gas within the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key function of moisture within the atmosphere?

<p>Forming different types of precipitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the transfer of energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere primarily occur?

<p>Absorption</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor contributes to the increased risk of secondary disasters like fires or chemical spills after earthquakes?

<p>Health and Safety Risks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor influencing temperature variations at higher latitudes?

<p>Sunlight angle and path length</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic differentiates the infrastructure in developed countries from that in developing countries in terms of earthquake impacts?

<p>Building Codes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do developing countries often suffer greater devastation from earthquakes compared to developed countries?

<p>Higher Population Densities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process is responsible for the movement of heat through mass motion of heated molecules?

<p>Convection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to snow-capped mountain peaks near the equator despite their altitude?

<p>Distance from Earth's heat source</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which preparedness strategy is commonly found in developed countries but lacking in developing countries, contributing to their differing earthquake impacts?

<p>Earthquake-Resistant Buildings</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do coastal regions typically experience more moderated temperatures compared to inland areas?

<p>Specific heat capacity of water</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a significant reason why resource shortages occur as an immediate impact of earthquakes?

<p>Disruption of Utility Lines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary concern associated with the enhanced greenhouse effect?

<p>Rising sea levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What environmental impact is NOT directly linked to increased greenhouse gases as discussed?

<p>Excessive soil erosion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which physical state of water in the atmosphere is crucial for weather and climate but remains invisible?

<p>Gaseous water vapor</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Sublimation' involves the direct shift from which state of water to another?

<p>'Solid ice' to 'gaseous water vapor'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which atmospheric process involves cooling of water vapor leading to cloud formation and precipitation?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of Earth's total water resources is freshwater?

<p>2.5%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor driving the formation of cumulonimbus clouds?

<p>Rising warm air</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of energy that powers the hydrological or water cycle?

<p>Solar energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of rainfall is induced by moist winds forced upward by terrain features?

<p>Orographic Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of cirrus clouds in terms of precipitation?

<p>No precipitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which cloud type does hail typically form?

<p>Cumulonimbus clouds</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process involves the direct shift from solid ice to vapor in the atmosphere?

<p><em>Sublimation</em></p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of clouds can lead to thunderstorms?

<p><em>Cumulus</em></p> Signup and view all the answers

'Relative humidity' is a measure of current water vapor relative to what at the same temperature?

<p><em>Maximum possible</em></p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary geological process responsible for the formation of block mountains (horsts)?

<p>Elevated blocks formed between faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of fault is characterized by rocks being pushed together, leading to reverse faults or folds?

<p>Reverse fault</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which seismic wave type travels through the Earth's crust and squeezes or stretches the ground?

<p>Primary waves (P-waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the logarithmic scale used to quantify the energy released by earthquakes called?

<p>Richter scale</p> Signup and view all the answers

What landform is created by depressed blocks formed through fault movements, such as the East African Rift Valley?

<p>Rift valleys (grabens)</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which scenario do undersea disturbances like earthquakes contribute to the formation of a tsunami?

<p>Underwater landslides or volcanic activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Surface waves' in earthquakes are primarily known for what characteristic?

<p>Rolling the ground similarly to ocean waves</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Scenic Value and Tourism' related to fault landscapes is due to what aspect?

<p>'The dramatic scenery and unique geological features'</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Compression' as a cause of faulting results in which geological feature?

<p>'Folds'</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Energy' harnessed from rivers flowing through mountains is primarily used for what purpose?

<p>'Hydroelectric power generation'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is tight spacing between isobars on synoptic weather maps indicative of strong winds?

<p>It indicates a steep pressure gradient, leading to strong winds.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of satellite technology in modern meteorology?

<p>To provide comprehensive real-time imagery for weather forecasting.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the inner core of the Earth solid despite extreme heat?

<p>Caused by immense pressures at Earth's center.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary advantage of using the Water Vapor Spectrum in meteorology?

<p>Shows moisture distribution vital for tracking frontal systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) significant in Earth's structure?

<p>It marks the boundary between the crust and mantle.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of isobars on synoptic weather maps?

<p>To connect points of equal atmospheric pressure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the outer core of the Earth considered a liquid layer?

<p>The fluid nature is due to extremely high temperatures experienced.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Visible Spectrum satellite imagery is most useful for observing what type of weather phenomena?

<p><strong>Cloud structures</strong> during daytime conditions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Pressure Cells on synoptic maps indicate high or low-pressure areas based on which factor?

<p><strong>Atmospheric pressure changes</strong> towards or away from the center.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do tectonic plates interact with each other on Earth's surface?

<p>By floating on the semi-fluid upper mantle and moving relative to one another.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of plate boundary is characterized by tectonic plates moving away from each other?

<p>Divergent plate boundary</p> Signup and view all the answers

What defines the primary difference between laccoliths and lopoliths in intrusive igneous activity?

<p>Shape and effect on surrounding rock layers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main factor influencing the resistance to erosion and permeability of different types of rocks in shaping landscapes?

<p>Geological structures and rock types</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is typically associated with karst landscapes formed in limestone?

<p>Karst topography</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes sills from pipes in intrusive igneous activity?

<p>Direction of intrusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary evidence supporting the theory of continental drift according to the text?

<p>Jigsaw Fit</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Existing rock into sediments that are transported and deposited by wind, water, and ice.' Which geological process is described in this statement?

<p><strong>Deposition</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

'These sediments accumulate in layers, compact over time, and solidify into sedimentary rock.' What process is being described here?

<p><strong>Lithification</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

'The rate of cooling determines the crystal size within the rock.' This statement is related to which type of rock formation?

<p><strong>Igneous Rock</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

'This supercontinent existed around 200 million years ago before fragmenting into Laurasia and Gondwana around 135 million years ago.' What theory is being referenced here?

<p><strong>Continental Drift</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of plate margin is characterized by plates sliding past each other without creating or destroying crust?

<p>Conservative Margins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What natural phenomenon is responsible for creating new crust and mid-ocean ridges at plate margins?

<p>Magma Rising and Solidifying</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the ozone layer crucial in the stratosphere?

<p>It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for the temperature increase with altitude in the stratosphere?

<p>Absorption of UV radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere is known as the coldest layer where meteors burn up?

<p>Mesosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Vital for respiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a significant function of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

<p>Increases global warming</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does temperature vary over time on Earth?

<p>Varies with daily and seasonal changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is nitrogen considered important in Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Critical for plant growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What role do inert gases like argon and neon play in the atmosphere?

<p>Primarily non-reactive</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some essential functions of the atmosphere as mentioned in the text?

<p>Regulation of air pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of energy for the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT included in the stores within the atmosphere?

<p>Nitrogen gas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process involves the release of moisture back into space or returning it to the Earth's surface through precipitation?

<p>Moisture recycling</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an output from the atmosphere involving gases and solids?

<p>Photosynthesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What plays a crucial role in cloud formation and radiation reflection within the atmosphere?

<p>Dust, salt, and smoke particles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does terrestrial radiation refer to as an output from the atmosphere?

<p>Heat radiated back into space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of liquid water in the atmosphere?

<p>To cool to form clouds and potentially lead to precipitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does conduction facilitate the transfer of energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere?

<p>By moving heat energy through direct contact, impacting the air closest to the surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main concern associated with the enhanced greenhouse effect?

<p>A rise in global temperatures leading to adverse environmental impacts</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are mountain peaks near the equator sometimes snow-capped despite their locations?

<p>Because of their high altitudes causing temperature decreases and snow formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what way can ocean currents affect the temperatures of nearby land areas?

<p>By moderating temperatures through warm or cold currents</p> Signup and view all the answers

What primarily drives the formation of snowflakes, hail, or ice crystals at high altitudes?

<p>Freezing of liquid water into solid ice upon losing heat energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process leads to the transformation of gaseous water vapor into invisible moisture in the air?

<p>Condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What atmospheric process primarily facilitates the exchange of water between the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans?

<p>Evaporation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does humidity contribute to cloud formation?

<p>By providing water vapor for condensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cloud is most likely to indicate an approaching cold front but does not produce precipitation?

<p>Cirrus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What environmental mechanism of rainfall is primarily driven by the lifting of warm, moist air over cooler air in frontal systems?

<p>Cyclonic or Frontal Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary distinguishing factor of hail compared to other forms of precipitation like snow or rain?

<p>Hail is generated by updrafts cycling water droplets</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of synoptic weather maps in meteorology?

<p>Offering a comprehensive overview of weather conditions over a broad area</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which environmental mechanism of precipitation occurs due to the cooling and condensing of moist winds forced upward by terrain features?

<p>Relief or Orographic Rain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes dew from frost in terms of formation?

<p><strong>Dew</strong> formation results from direct condensation of vapor onto surfaces, while <strong>frost</strong> occurs when atmospheric moisture freezes due to cold temperatures.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are isobars with tight spacing indicative of strong winds?

<p>As a result of steep pressure gradients</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary composition of Earth's outer core?

<p>Mainly composed of nickel and iron</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the inner core solid despite extreme heat?

<p>Because of immense pressure at Earth's center</p> Signup and view all the answers

What information does the Water Vapor Spectrum provide in meteorology?

<p>Details on moisture distribution</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are satellite images crucial for large area monitoring in meteorology?

<p>For continuous and detailed views</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main role of crust in relation to lithosphere?

<p>To form the lithosphere's upper part</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do infrared spectrum images aid meteorologists during night-time?

<p>By showing air temperature differences</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Mohorovičić discontinuity mark the boundary between?

<p>Between the crust and mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the Earth is composed of solid but plastic-like rock?

<p>Mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what way do tectonic plates contribute to Earth's geophysical processes?

<p>By shaping the surface through movement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the ozone layer in the atmosphere?

<p>Protecting against harmful UV radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the atmosphere contains the majority of the ozone layer?

<p>Stratosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for the cold temperatures in the mesosphere?

<p>Meteors burning up</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gas contributes significantly to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere?

<p>Carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of the temperature increase with altitude in the thermosphere?

<p>Solar wind interactions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the atmosphere is primarily responsible for cloud formation and affecting Earth's albedo?

<p>Troposphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one significant effect of increased global warming due to rising carbon dioxide levels?

<p>Alteration of weather patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gas, despite being inert, is crucial for plant growth in the atmosphere?

<p>Nitrogen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the primary roles of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Vital for respiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to maintaining Earth's temperature and weather patterns in the atmosphere?

<p>Greenhouse effect and cloud formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological process is responsible for transforming existing igneous or sedimentary rocks under extreme pressure and temperature conditions without melting?

<p>Metamorphism</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of intrusive rock body is characterized by chimney-like structures that allow magma to move from deep areas toward the surface?

<p>Dykes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor that influences the resistance to erosion and permeability of landforms?

<p>Geological Structures and Rock Types</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landform is a residual feature resulting from the erosion of surrounding material, leaving exposed core-stones?

<p>Tors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What significant event occurred around 200 million years ago according to Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift?

<p>Formation of Pangaea</p> Signup and view all the answers

What evidence supporting continental drift is based on similar rock formations and fossil evidence across different continents?

<p>Geology and Fossils</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of tectonic plate boundary involves rocks being pulled apart?

<p>Divergent Boundary</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do batholiths differ from laccoliths in terms of size and formation?

<p>Batholiths are larger masses of igneous rock formed deep below the Earth's surface, unlike laccoliths which are shallow intrusions between rock layers.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinctive feature characterizes pipes among intrusive igneous bodies?

<p>They are chimney-like structures allowing magma to move towards a surface.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential consequence of resource shortages following earthquakes?

<p>Reduced access to essential resources like drinking water</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why may developing countries suffer greater devastation from earthquakes compared to developed countries?

<p>Less stringent building codes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key advantage that developed countries have over developing countries in earthquake preparedness?

<p>Advanced emergency services</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do developing countries differ from developed countries in terms of earthquake-resistant buildings?

<p>Developed countries emphasize earthquake-resistant buildings more</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common health and safety risk associated with earthquakes?

<p>Increased risk of injuries from debris</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of plate margin results in the formation of new crust and mid-ocean ridges?

<p>Constructive Margins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fold is characterized by limbs that are nearly horizontal?

<p>Monocline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary method for monitoring ground temperature changes in volcanoes?

<p>Using tilt meters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which geological process is responsible for the formation of fold mountains like the Himalayas?

<p>Folding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of earthquake zone is associated with observing changes in coastal water levels?

<p>Transform Fault Zones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Under what conditions does an overthrust fold (nappe) occur?

<p>Extreme pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main geological feature formed at conservative plate margins?

<p>Transform Faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What geological process results in the formation of block mountains (Horsts)?

<p>Faulting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which seismic wave type only moves through solids, not liquids?

<p>Secondary Waves (S-waves)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of rift valleys (Grabens) formation?

<p>Fault movements</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which tectonic force results in normal faults due to rocks being pulled apart?

<p>Tension</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process that primarily leads to earthquakes occurring?

<p>Tectonic plate interactions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor contributing to the scenic value of fault-related landscapes?

<p>Fault movements</p> Signup and view all the answers

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