Comparison of AMPED and MP Models in Server Performance
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Comparison of AMPED and MP Models in Server Performance

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Questions and Answers

In the Multi-threaded (MT) architecture, what is the primary difference compared to the Multi-process (MP) architecture?

Threads in MT can share global variables.

What is a key advantage of the Multi-threaded (MT) model?

Easy performance optimizations relying on global information.

Why is synchronization necessary in the Multi-threaded (MT) architecture?

To control access to shared data among threads.

What type of support does the Multi-threaded (MT) model require from the operating system?

<p>Support for kernel threads.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the Multi-threaded (MT) architecture handle I/O operations compared to the Multi-process (MP) model?

<p>Ensures other runnable threads can execute while one blocks on I/O.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What makes it more challenging to perform optimizations relying on global information in the Multi-threaded (MT) architecture compared to Multi-process (MP)?

<p>Need for synchronization to access shared data.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a problem associated with SPED servers as mentioned in the text?

<p>Lack of support for asynchronous disk operations in current operating systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

What behavior is observed in certain operating systems when non-blocking read operations are performed on disk files?

<p>They may block the caller during disk I/O operations.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it challenging to simultaneously check for network and disk I/O events efficiently in many UNIX systems?

<p>Lack of integration between alternate APIs for asynchronous disk I/O and the select operation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can be a consequence of performing open and stat operations on file descriptors in certain cases?

<p>Blocking the operations</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do existing SPED servers avoid using special asynchronous disk interfaces as per the text?

<p>The interfaces are not integrated with the select operation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which aspect makes it particularly difficult to achieve efficient completion checks for network and disk I/O events as discussed in the text?

<p>Absence of seamless integration between APIs for disk I/O and network I/O</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one advantage of the Owlnet trace dataset size compared to the CS trace dataset size?

<p>Better cache locality</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which trace shows Flash-SPED’s relative performance as much better?

<p>Owlnet trace</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does MP perform well on the CS trace?

<p>Disk-intensive nature</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the purpose of truncating the access logs from Rice’s ECE departmental Web server in the experiments?

<p>To generate a given dataset size</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many client machines were used in both experiments to generate the workload?

<p>Two machines with 32 clients each</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was measured as the performance metric in Figures 9 and 10 for the various servers under real workload and various dataset sizes?

<p>Total output bandwidth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main advantage of the AMPED architecture helper processes?

<p>They have small application-level memory demands</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the MP model differ from the AMPED architecture in terms of disk utilization?

<p>The MP model can benefit from multiple disks and disk head scheduling</p> Signup and view all the answers

What limitation does the SPED architecture face in terms of disk requests?

<p>It can only generate one disk request at a time</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of disk requests, how does the AMPED architecture compare to the MP/MT models?

<p>AMPED generates one disk request per helper</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a distinguishing feature of the MP model in comparison to other architectures?

<p>Requires a separate process per concurrently served HTTP request</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the server architecture impact Web server optimizations and features?

<p>Server architecture determines the tradeoffs necessary for optimizations and features</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary impact of not implementing caching optimizations in Flash performance?

<p>Flash performance decreases significantly for small documents.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which caching optimization provides the largest benefit to server throughput for cached content, according to the text?

<p>Pathname translation caching</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the performance breakdown graph (Figure 11) help understand the impact of caching optimizations on Flash's performance?

<p>It highlights the contribution of each caching optimization to server throughput.</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what scenario would the impact be strongest according to the text?

<p>Requests with a high per-request cost for small documents</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which combination of caching optimizations is likely to provide the highest server throughput for cached content based on the text?

<p>All three caching optimizations combined</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the impact of a large number of connections on the performance of SPED and AMPED architectures?

<p>It causes the performance to flatten out beyond 200 concurrent connections.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the MP model differ from the MT architecture in terms of performance decline with increasing concurrent connections?

<p>MP model suffers gradual decline while MT architecture flattens.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the reasons for the decline in performance observed in the MP model as the number of concurrent connections increases?

<p>Per-process overhead in the MP model.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which research examined Web server optimizations by evaluating different architectures on UNIX systems and Windows NT using the WebStone benchmark?

<p>James Hu et al.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one aspect that researchers have analyzed regarding HTTP request serving processing costs to propose improvements?

<p>Optimizations for different steps of HTTP request serving.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method does the Flash server use to adapt to changes in memory availability for the file cache?

<p>Continuous feedback from performance counters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of using performance counters in the Flash server architecture?

<p>To track page faults and disk accesses</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many different versions of the Flash server were built in the comparative performance evaluation section?

<p>Four (AMPED, MT, MP, SPED)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which architectures were developed based on the Flash code base for comparison in performance results?

<p>Flash-MT, Flash-SPED</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the key focus of the performance impact quantification results presented in the text?

<p>Quantifying the impact of various performance optimizations in Flash</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of disk utilization, what distinguishes the AMPED architecture from the MP/MT models?

<p>AMPED generates one disk request per helper.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor that limits the SPED architecture's ability to benefit from multiple disks or disk head scheduling?

<p>It stops all user-level processing whenever it accesses the disk.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic of the helper processes in the AMPED architecture makes them unique compared to processes in the MP and MT models?

<p>Low application-level memory demands</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does the SPED architecture face challenges in benefiting from multiple disks or disk head scheduling?

<p>All user-level processing stops whenever SPED accesses the disk.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes the cost of concurrent disk operations in the AMPED architecture from that in the MP model?

<p>Helper required only per concurrent disk operation in AMPED.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Web Server Architectures

  • The Multi-Process (MP) model uses multiple processes, each handling a single HTTP request, and requires synchronization to handle the processing of different HTTP requests.
  • The Multi-Threaded (MT) model uses multiple threads within a single address space, with each thread handling a single HTTP request, and requires thread synchronization to access shared data.
  • The AMPED (Asynchronous Model for Processing and Execution of Dynamic requests) model uses a single non-blocking server process assisted by helper processes, which have small application-level memory demands and are needed only per concurrent disk operation.

Disk Utilization

  • The MP and MT models can generate one disk request per process/thread, while the AMPED model can generate one request per helper.
  • The SPED (Single Process, Event-Driven) model can only generate one disk request at a time and cannot benefit from multiple disks or disk head scheduling.

Performance Evaluation

  • The Flash web server implements the AMPED architecture and uses a single non-blocking server process assisted by helper processes.
  • The MP model incurs the cost of a separate process per concurrently served HTTP request, which has substantial memory and kernel overheads.
  • The MT model requires that the operating system provides support for kernel threads, and the threads must use some form of synchronization to control access to shared data.

Optimizations and Features

  • The server architecture impacts the feasibility and profitability of certain types of Web server optimizations and features.
  • The tradeoffs necessary in the various architectures are compared from a qualitative standpoint.
  • The Flash web server uses caching optimizations, including pathname translation caching, mapped file caching, and response header caching, which have a significant impact on server throughput for cached content.

Experimental Results

  • The experimental results show that the AMPED model outperforms the MP and MT models in terms of bandwidth and concurrent connections.
  • The Flash server's performance is affected by the number of concurrent connections, with a significant decline in performance as the number of concurrent connections increases.
  • The results also show that the caching optimizations have a significant impact on server throughput for cached content.

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Description

Learn about the differences between AMPED and MP models in server performance, including the overhead involved, memory demands, and disk utilization. Discover how these models impact the handling of concurrent disk operations in servers.

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