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Lipids Pt 1 Quiz

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44 Questions

Who has the higher melting point?

Saturated Fatty Acids

Which mammal may require arachidonic acid as an essential fatty acid?

Cats

Why are saturated fatty acids more water insoluble than unsaturated fatty acids?

Saturated in hydrogen bonds

What does the number 18 represent in the fatty acid molecule's structure for this example- 18:2(9,12)?

Total number of carbons

Which carbon is referred to as the 'carbonyl carbon' in a fatty acid chain?

1st carbon

Which type of fatty acid is essential for growth and development?

Alpha linolenic acid

What causes kinks within unsaturated fatty acids?

Cis double bonds

What is the primary function of nonmembrane phospholipids mentioned in the text?

Lung surfactant component

Which lipid compound is composed of a polar phosphate head group and 2 non-polar fatty acid tails?

Phospholipids

What is the precursor for arachidonic acid in eicosanoid synthesis?

Alpha linolenic acid

In phospholipid structure, what does the head group do that impacts its polarity?

Links to serine or choline

Which type of lipid serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin hormone?

Fatty acids

During a period of fasting, what is released from adipocytes and utilized as an energy source for tissue cells?

Triacylglycerol

Which lipid category includes neutral fats such as waxes and ceramides?

Simple lipids

What part of the phospholipid faces the external aqueous environment in membranes?

Phosphate head group

Which lipid is commonly utilized in the liver and muscles for energy production through beta oxidation?

Fatty acids

What is the main function of plasma albumin for fatty acids during circulation?

Facilitate transportation

Which type of lipid serves as the building block for other lipids?

Fatty acids

Which blood group is equivalent to the B-Antigen?

Blood group B

In which form are fatty acids stored for energy in white adipose tissue?

Triacylglycerol

What is the main immediate precursor for eicosanoids?

Arachidonic acid

What is the correct structure of a sphingolipid?

fatty acid + sphingosine backbone + phosphate + choline

What defines blood group AB in terms of terminal sugars?

Having both Gal and GalNAc

What carbon is also referred to as the beta carbon?

3rd carbon

Which type of eicosanoid is responsible for the pain and fever response?

Prostaglandin (PG)

Are eicosanoids stored in the body?

No, they are not stored

Which is the correct structure of a phospholipid?

2 fatty acid tails + glycerol back bone + phosphate + alcohol

What is an example of a complex lipid?

Lipoprotein

What is the main function of glycolipids?

More than 1 answer is correct

Where are glycosphingolipids found in high concentrations?

In nerve tissue

Which is a major component in lung surfactants?

Phosphatidylcholine

What carbon is referred to as the gamma carbon?

4th carbon

In which tissues do eicosanoids act locally?

Within tissues where they are produced

Which terminal sugar group is lacking in blood group O?

GalNAc and Gal

What is involved in the activation of inflammatory cells, platelet aggregation (for blood clotting), and is involved in hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions?

PAF (platelet activating factor)

How are glycosphingolipids and phospholipids different?

Glycosphingolipids do not contain a phosphate group

What type of bond attaches the carbohydrate group to ceremide in glycosphingolipids?

O-glycosidic bond

What is the role of Glycosphingolipids in cellular interactions?

Regulate cellular interactions, growth, and development

What carbon is referred to as the omega carbon?

The carbon furthest from the carbonyl carbon.

Which is the easiest to digest?

SCFA

Which of the following is derived from serene and palmitate?

Sphingosine

What is a component found within the inner mitochondrial membrane and is used for blood clotting?

Cardiolipin

What is an example of a lipid derivative?

Ketone

What is most commonly found in the brain?

VLCFA

Study Notes

Fatty Acids

  • At physiological pH, fatty acids have an ionized hydroxyl group (COO^-), making them hydrophilic and amphipathic.
  • Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are mostly hydrophobic, making them water-insoluble.
  • Over 90% of fatty acids in blood plasma are in an esterified form, contained in lipoprotein particles.

Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

  • Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds and have a higher melting point than unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds, with cis double bonds causing kinks in the fatty acid chain.
  • Two or more double bonds are spaced at 3-carbon intervals.

Fatty Acid Nomenclature

  • Carbon atoms are numbered starting from the carbonyl carbon (carbon 1).
  • The format "#:#(#)" represents the number of carbons, double bonds, and positions of double bonds.
  • Example: 18:2(9,12) indicates 18 carbons, 2 double bonds, and double bonds at carbons 9 and 12.

Glycolipids and Glycosphingolipids

  • Glycolipids consist of carbohydrate and lipid components, maintaining cellular membrane stability and aiding cellular recognition.
  • Glycosphingolipids are a subgroup of glycolipids, composed of a carbohydrate group and a ceramide derivative attached to an amino alcohol sphingosine.
  • Glycosphingolipids do not contain a phosphate group; instead, a mono- or oligosaccharide provides the polar head group function.
  • Glycosphingolipids are found in high concentrations in nerve tissue, interacting with the extracellular environment and involved in cellular recognition.

Blood Group Antigens

  • Each blood type molecule has a glycosphingolipid attached to a specific sugar chain.
  • Blood types differ based on the terminal sugar group, with O lacking GalNAc and Gal, A having GalNAc, B having Gal, and AB having both Gal and GalNAc.

Eicosanoids

  • Eicosanoids are signaling molecules derived from 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • They are potent and have a wide range of effects, including physiologic (inflammatory response) and pathologic (hypersensitivity).
  • Eicosanoids are produced in small amounts, act locally, and are classified as local hormones with short half-lives.

Arachidonic Acid

  • Arachidonic acid is the main precursor for eicosanoids and is part of membrane phospholipids.
  • It is not an essential fatty acid but can be limited, making it essential for some mammals (e.g., cats).

Types of Eicosanoids

  • Prostaglandin (PG) is responsible for pain and fever response, impacting reproductive and GI tract, bronchopulmonary tone, and vascular smooth muscle tone.
  • Thromboxane (TX) and leukotrienes (LT) are other examples of eicosanoids.

Lipid Classification

  • Simple lipids: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, neutral fats (waxes, ceramides), mono-, di-, triacylglycerol (TAG).
  • Complex lipids: glycolipids, sphingolipids/sphingoglycolipids, phospholipids, lipoproteins.
  • Derived lipids: steroids, eicosanoids, ketones, fat-soluble vitamins.

Learn about common examples of simple lipids like fatty acids, neutral fats, and glycerol. Explore complex lipids such as glycolipids, phospholipids, and lipoproteins. Discover derived lipids like steroids, eicosanoids, ketones, and fat-soluble vitamins.

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