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# Colligative Properties of Solutions

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@UltraCrispCosecant

### What is the formula that includes the Van't Hoff correction factor (i)?

• PV = n R T
• PV = i n R T (correct)
• PV = i^2 n R T
• PV = i^3 n R T
• ### What is the value of i for a substance that dissociates into 3 ions?

• 2.6 (correct)
• 1.8
• 4.2
• 3.4
• ### Why does the vapor pressure of a solvent decrease when a non-volatile solute is added?

• Because the solute molecules dissolve in the solvent
• Because the solute molecules increase the vapor pressure of the solvent
• Because the solute molecules react with the solvent molecules
• Because the solute molecules occupy some of the surface area of the solvent (correct)
• ### What is the boiling point of pure water?

<p>100°C</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the boiling point of a solvent when a solute is added?

<p>It increases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the freezing point of pure water?

<p>0°C</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the freezing point of a solvent when a solute is added?

<p>It decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the effect of adding a 10% salt solution on the freezing point of water?

<p>It decreases by 6°C</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the value of i for a non-electrolyte?

<p>1</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why do colligative properties depend on the number of particles in solution?

<p>Because the number of particles affects the vapor pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Colligative Properties of Solution

• Colligative properties depend mainly on the number of particles in a solution.
• These properties are co-related, and any change in one of them will be accompanied by a corresponding change in the others.

### Osmotic Pressure

• Osmosis: the movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration.
• Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to the solution to prevent the passage of the solvent through a perfect semi-permeable membrane.
• Osmotic pressure can be expressed by Van't Hoff equation: PV = nRT.

### Example of Osmotic Pressure Calculation

• To calculate the osmotic pressure of 50g of dextrose in 1000ml of water at 25°C: P = (0.28)(0.082)(298) / 1 = 6.84 atm.

### Modifications for Electrolytes

• The Van't Hoff equation must be modified to allow for the effect of ionic dissociation, which increases the number of particles in the solution.

### Effects of Osmotic Pressure on Red Blood Cells

• Hypotonic solution: lower salt concentration and lower osmotic pressure than the red blood cell contents, causing water to enter the cells and leading to swelling and hemolysis.
• Isotonic solution: equal salt concentration and osmotic pressure to the red blood cell contents, maintaining cell shape and size.

### Other Colligative Properties

• Vapor pressure lowering: caused by the reduction of surface area available for escaping solvent molecules due to the presence of solute particles.
• Boiling point elevation: a solution requires a higher temperature to reach its boiling point than the pure solvent due to vapor pressure lowering.
• Freezing point depression: a solution has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent due to the disruption of solvent-solvent interactions by solute particles.

### Applications of Colligative Properties

• Method of adjusting tonicity: adding sodium chloride or a substance to lower the freezing point of the solution to -0.52°C, making it isotonic with body fluids.
• Cryoscopic method: adjusting the freezing point of a solution to -0.52°C by adding sodium chloride, making it isotonic with blood.
• Sodium Chloride Equivalent method: using the dissociation factor (i) to adjust the concentration of a solution to make it isotonic with body fluids.

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## Description

This quiz covers the properties of solutions that depend on the number of particles in the solution, including osmotic pressure, vapor pressure lowering, and boiling point elevation. Understand the definition and characteristics of colligative properties.

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