Colligative Properties of Solutions

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18 Questions

What is the primary factor that determines the colligative properties of a solution?

Number of solute particles relative to solvent particles

Which of the following is an example of a colligative property?

Osmotic pressure

What is the primary function of a semipermeable membrane in osmosis?

To permit the passage of only solvent molecules

What is the characteristic of an isotonic solution?

It has the same osmotic pressure as physiologic fluid

What is the purpose of using an isotonic solution in medical applications?

To maintain the normal shape and function of tissues

What is the concentration of an isotonic solution of sodium chloride?

0.9% NaCl solution

What is the reason a 2.0% solution of boric acid causes rapid hemolysis?

Because it has the same osmotic pressure as blood cells

Why is a 2.0% boric acid solution isotonic with blood cells?

Because it has the same osmotic pressure as blood cells

What is the function of the mucous lining of the eye in relation to boric acid in solution?

It acts as a semipermeable membrane to boric acid

What is the freezing point of both human blood and lacrimal fluid?

-0.52 °C

What is the principle behind the hemolytic method of measuring tonicity?

Based on the liberation of oxyhemoglobin in proportion to the number of cells hemolyzed

What is the concentration of NaCl solution that is isotonic with both blood and lacrimal fluid?

0.9% NaCl

What happens to red blood cells when they are suspended in a 2.0% NaCl solution?

They shrink and become wrinkled.

What is the term for the phenomenon where red blood cells swell and finally burst due to an influx of water?

Hemolysis

What is the osmotic pressure of body fluids, such as blood and lachrymal fluids, equivalent to?

0.9% NaCl solution

What is the term for a solution with an osmotic pressure higher than that of a 0.9% NaCl solution?

Hypertonic solution

What is the term for a solution with an osmotic pressure equal to that of a 0.9% NaCl solution?

Isotonic solution

What is the difference between iso-osmotic and isotonic?

Iso-osmotic refers to a solution's osmotic pressure, while isotonic refers to its effect on red blood cells.

Study Notes

Colligative Properties

  • Characteristic properties of a solution that depend on the number of solute particles to the solvent particles.
  • These properties include: osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, vapor-pressure lowering, and freezing point depression.

Osmosis

  • The process through which the solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane to dilute a solution having a higher osmotic pressure.
  • Semipermeable membrane permits the passage of only the solvent molecules, not the solute molecules.

Isotonic Solutions

  • Solutions that contain the same concentration of water and solutes as the cell cytoplasm.
  • The isotonic solution has the same osmotic pressure as the physiologic fluid and does not cause swelling or contraction of the tissues with which it comes in contact.
  • Example: 0.9% NaCl solution is isotonic with blood and lachrymal fluids.

Physiologic Fluid

  • Body fluids, such as blood and lachrymal fluids, with an osmotic pressure corresponding to that of 0.9% NaCl solution.

Isotonicity and Hemolysis

  • A 2.0% solution of boric acid is iso-osmotic with blood but causes rapid hemolysis because the molecules of boric acid pass freely through the erythrocyte membrane.
  • A solution is isotonic only when the blood cells are impermeable to it.

Measurement of Tonicity

  • The hemolytic method: based on the liberation of oxyhemoglobin in direct proportion to the number of cells hemolyzed.
  • Using the colligative properties: based on a measurement of the slight temperature differences arising from differences in the vapor pressure.

Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions

  • Hypertonic solution: a solution with an osmotic pressure higher than 0.9% NaCl, causing the cells to shrink and become wrinkled.
  • Hypotonic solution: a solution with an osmotic pressure lower than 0.9% NaCl, causing the cells to swell and finally burst or rupture.
  • Example: 2.0% NaCl solution is hypertonic, and 0.2% NaCl solution is hypotonic.

Distinction between Iso-osmotic and Isotonic

  • The terms iso-osmotic and isotonic are not equivalent.
  • A solution can be iso-osmotic but not isotonic, causing hemolysis of red blood cells.

Learn about the colligative properties of solutions, including osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, vapor-pressure lowering, and freezing point depression. Understand the concept of osmosis and semipermeable membranes.

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