Cold War Era Politics and Geography

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What is the primary objective of the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM)?

To eliminate global economic inequalities

What is a characteristic of military alliances formed by superpowers during the Cold War?

An attack on one member country is considered an attack on all member countries

Why did the superpowers engage in an arms race during the Cold War?

To demonstrate their military power and deter their opponents

What was the primary reason for the superpowers to form military alliances with smaller countries?

To secure their military and strategic interests

What is NOT a feature of military alliances formed by superpowers during the Cold War?

Superpowers assist member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons

Which of the following countries was a member of the Non-Alignment Movement?

Nigeria

What was the primary reason for the development of arms control agreements during the Cold War?

To reduce the risk of nuclear war

What is the term for the policy of not joining any military alliances?

Non-Alignment

What is the primary objective of the Non-Alignment Movement in terms of global issues?

To pursue a policy of neutrality

Why did the superpowers engage in military alliances with smaller countries?

To secure their military and strategic interests

Study Notes

The Cold War Era

  • The Cold War led to the division of Europe into rival alliances, with the Western bloc led by the United States and the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union.
  • The Western alliance, known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), was formalized in 1949 and consisted of 12 states that declared mutual defense in case of an attack.
  • The Eastern alliance, known as the Warsaw Pact, was created in 1955 and led by the Soviet Union, with the primary function of countering NATO's forces in Europe.

Capitalist Bloc

  • Countries that belonged to the Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War include:
    • Italy (capital: Rome)
    • Turkey (capital: Ankara)
    • Greece (capital: Athens)

Communist Bloc

  • Countries that belonged to the Communist Bloc during the Cold War include:
    • Yugoslavia (capital: Belgrade)
    • Bulgaria (capital: Sofia)
    • Albania (capital: Tirana)

Non-Aligned Movement

  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was formed by newly independent countries to stay out of the rival alliances and pursue independent policies.
  • The movement enabled countries to follow a policy of neutrality on global issues and focus on eliminating global economic inequalities.

Features of Military Alliances

  • Key features of military alliances formed by the superpowers include:
    • Mutual defense in case of an attack on any member country
    • Member countries providing bases for the superpowers in their respective lands
    • Member countries supporting the superpower in terms of ideology and military strategy
  • However, superpowers did not assist all member countries in developing their own nuclear weapons.

Countries and Their Blocs

  • Countries and their respective blocs during the Cold War include:
    • Poland: Communist Bloc
    • France: Capitalist Bloc
    • Japan: Capitalist Bloc
    • Nigeria: Non-Aligned Movement
    • North Korea: Communist Bloc
    • Sri Lanka: Non-Aligned Movement

Arms Race and Arms Control

  • The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control, primarily due to the rivalry and competition between the superpowers.
  • The arms race led to a buildup of military capabilities, while arms control efforts sought to reduce the threat of nuclear war and promote disarmament.

Reasons for Superpower Military Alliances

  • The superpowers formed military alliances with smaller countries for three main reasons:
    • To counter the influence of the rival superpower
    • To secure strategic locations and resources
    • To promote their respective ideologies and interests

Test your knowledge of the Cold War era, including the division of Europe into rival alliances, geographic locations, and the classification of countries into the Capitalist and Communist Blocs. Identify the countries and their capitals, and understand the historical context of the time.

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