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# Chapter 13 - Forces in Fluids

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### What is pressure?

Result of a force distributed over an area

force/area

Pascal

### What defines a fluid?

<p>Substance that assumes the shape of its container</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are the types of fluids?

<p>Liquids and gases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does water pressure change with depth?

<p>Increases as depth increases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the pressure in a fluid at any given depth?

<p>It’s constant and exerted equally in all directions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What factors determine the pressure of a fluid that is not moving?

<p>Depth and the type of fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the pressure of the weight of Earth's atmosphere?

<p>101 kPa</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When does air pressure increase?

<p>When the depth of the atmosphere increases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When does air pressure decrease?

<p>When altitude increases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when the pressure inside a body balances the air pressure outside?

<p>Net-force of 0 (balanced forces cancel)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does Pascal's Principle state?

<p>A change in pressure at any point in a fluid is transmitted equally and unchanged in all directions throughout the fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a hydraulic system?

<p>A device that uses pressurized fluid acting on pistons of different sizes to change a force</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does a hydraulic system work?

<p>A constant fluid pressure is exerted on a larger area producing an increased output force</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to output force when the input force is increased and the area is larger?

<p>The bigger the input force, the bigger the output force</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does the Bernoulli Principle state?

<p>The speed of fluid increases while the pressure of the fluid decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is lift?

<p>An upward force created by the difference between pressures</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is buoyancy?

<p>The ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object placed in it</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What causes buoyancy?

<p>The apparent loss of weight of an object in a fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is buoyant force?

<p>The upward force that acts in the opposite direction of gravity</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does Archimedes' Principle state?

<p>The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is density?

<p>The ratio of an object's mass to its volume</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to an object's floating ability when it is less dense?

<p>The better it can float</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to an object's floating ability when it is more dense?

<p>The worse it can float</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When does an object float?

<p>The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the object</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When does an object sink?

<p>The buoyant force is less than the weight of an object</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When will an object be suspended in a fluid?

<p>The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the object</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What effect does a greater area of an object have on buoyant force?

<p>The greater its buoyant force</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when a liquid is denser?

<p>The greater the weight is displaced, which results in a greater buoyant force</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Pressure and Its Calculation

• Pressure is defined as the result of a force distributed over an area.
• Calculating pressure involves dividing the force by the area (Pressure = force/area).
• The Pascal (Pa) is the SI unit of pressure, equivalent to newtons per square meter (N/m²).

### Fluid Characteristics

• Fluids are substances that take the shape of their container, encompassing both liquids and gases.
• Water pressure increases with depth due to the weight of the water above.

### Pressure Behavior in Fluids

• At any given depth in a fluid, pressure remains constant and acts equally in all directions.
• Factors influencing static fluid pressure include depth and the type of fluid.

### Atmospheric Pressure

• The weight of Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure of approximately 101 kPa.
• Air pressure rises with increasing atmospheric depth, while it decreases at higher altitudes.

### Forces and Balance

• Inside a body, pressure balances the external air pressure, resulting in a net force of zero, indicating balanced forces.

### Fundamental Principles

• Pascal's Principle states that any change in pressure at any point in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions.
• Hydraulic systems utilize pressurized fluids acting on pistons of varying sizes to modify force, where increased area leads to increased output force.

### Fluid Dynamics

• According to Bernoulli's Principle, the speed of a fluid increases while its pressure decreases, affecting lift generation.
• Lift is the upward force created by pressure differences.

### Buoyancy and Its Principles

• Buoyancy refers to a fluid's ability to exert an upward force on an object placed within it.
• The phenomenon of buoyancy is caused by an apparent loss of weight of objects submerged in fluids.

### Buoyant Forces and Conditions

• Buoyant force acts in the opposite direction to gravity and is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced, as per Archimedes' Principle.
• An object's density influences its flotation ability; less dense objects can float better, while denser objects struggle to remain afloat.

### Floating and Sinking Criteria

• An object will float when its buoyant force equals its weight, while sinking occurs when the buoyant force is less than the object's weight.
• Objects can remain suspended in a fluid when the buoyant force matches their weight.

### Effects of Area and Liquid Density

• The greater the area of an object in a fluid, the higher the buoyant force it experiences.
• Denser liquids provide a greater weight displacement, resulting in increased buoyant force.

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## Description

Test your understanding of the key concepts related to forces in fluids with this quiz. Explore important terms such as pressure, fluid types, and the Pascal unit. Perfect for students studying physics or related sciences.

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