Cell Signalling Quiz: Secreted Molecules and Functions

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13 Questions

What is the first step in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection?

Leukocytes rolling along the vascular endothelium

What causes heat, redness, swelling (edema), and pain at the site of infection?

Vasodilation

Which process involves the crossing of a cell from the lumen of a vessel, between endothelial cells, and into the surrounding tissue?

Diapedesis

What causes a conformation change in adhesion molecules of leukocytes, leading to tight binding to adhesion molecules?

Chemokine binding

What is the final step in the process of leukocyte recruitment to the site of infection?

Migration in the direction of higher chemokine concentration

What is the primary cause of chronic inflammation, arthritis, and loss of function of the tissue?

Vasodilation

Which molecules provide Signal 2 for T cells in lymphoid tissue?

B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86)

What type of cytokines help induce inflammation?

IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-a, IL-12

What triggers another signaling cascade after being secreted?

Type 1 IFN

Which molecules are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and everywhere to provide Signal 2 for T cells?

B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86)

Which molecules halt and inhibit viral replication through blocking transcription, translation, and slowing viral infection?

Type 1 IFN stimulated genes

What is the difference between CC and CXC chemokines?

Location of two cysteine residues

What do PRR signalling trigger the migration and targeting of to lymphoid tissue?

Dendritic cells

Study Notes

Leukocyte Recruitment

  • The first step in leukocyte recruitment is the rolling of leukocytes along the endothelium, facilitated by selectins and their ligands.
  • Heat, redness, swelling (edema), and pain at the site of infection are caused by increased blood flow, permeability, and chemical mediators released during inflammation.

Diapedesis

  • Diapedesis is the process of leukocytes crossing from the lumen of a vessel, between endothelial cells, and into the surrounding tissue.

Activation of Leukocytes

  • Chemokines, such as IL-8, cause a conformation change in adhesion molecules of leukocytes, leading to tight binding to adhesion molecules.
  • The final step in leukocyte recruitment is the extravasation of leukocytes into the tissue.

Chronic Inflammation

  • Chronic inflammation, arthritis, and loss of tissue function are primarily caused by the persistence of inflammatory stimuli.

T Cell Activation

  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) provide Signal 2 for T cells in lymphoid tissue through costimulatory molecules such as B7.
  • Cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, help induce inflammation.

Signaling Cascades

  • Chemokines, such as IL-8, trigger another signaling cascade after being secreted.

Antigen-Presenting Cells

  • Costimulatory molecules, including B7, are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and other APCs to provide Signal 2 for T cells.

Antiviral Response

  • Interferons (IFNs) halt and inhibit viral replication through blocking transcription, translation, and slowing viral infection.

Chemokines

  • The main difference between CC and CXC chemokines is the presence of an amino acid residue in the N-terminus, with CC chemokines having an amino acid and CXC chemokines having an amino acid and an amino acid.
  • PRR signaling triggers the migration and targeting of dendritic cells to lymphoid tissue.

Test your knowledge on the molecules secreted out of the cell from PRR signalling. Explore the functions of cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules in the immune response.

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