Cell Injury and Adaptation Lecture Quiz

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16 Questions

What is the definition of cellular adaptation?

Reversible change in the number, size, or function of cells

Which of the following is NOT a cellular response to injury?

Apoptosis

What is the meaning of 'atrophy'?

Decrease in the size of an organ by decrease in size or number of its cells

When does cell injury occur?

When the limits to an adaptive response have been exceeded

Under what circumstances may cellular adaptation occur?

Excessive stress that exceeds the cell's adaptive capacity

What is metaplasia?

Change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type

Which term is used to describe an abnormal accumulation of intracellular neutral fat in parenchymatous organs, most commonly the liver and heart?

Fatty change (Steatosis)

What is the main characteristic of reversible cell injury involving cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration?

Enlarged, soft, and pale organ with tense capsule and rounded borders

What is the characteristic microscopic feature of irreversible cell injury involving fatty change (steatosis)?

Clear vacuoles in liver cells that push the nucleus to one side

Which condition results in an increase in the absolute number of cells in response to a stimulus or persistent cell injury?

Hyperplasia

What is the primary cause of necrosis involving living organisms?

Bacteria, fungus, and virus

What is the main characteristic of reversible cell injury involving fatty change (steatosis)?

Enlarged, soft, and pale organ with tense capsule and rounded borders

Which term describes an increase in the size of individual cells in response to a stimulus or injury?

Hypertrophy

What is the characteristic microscopic feature of reversible cell injury involving cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration?

Swollen cells with granular cytoplasm and normal nucleus

What does hypertrophy primarily result in?

Increased size of an organ

What is the primary characteristic associated with metaplasia?

Replacement of one mature cell type by another mature cell type of the same category

Study Notes

Cellular Adaptation and Injury

  • Cellular adaptation is a reversible change in cellular structure and function in response to a stimulus or injury, allowing cells to adapt to new conditions.

Cellular Response to Injury

  • Cell injury occurs when cells are exposed to physiological stress, toxins, or other harmful substances, disrupting cellular homeostasis.

Types of Cellular Adaptation

  • Atrophy: a decrease in cell size or number in response to a stimulus or injury.
  • Hypertrophy: an increase in cell size in response to a stimulus or injury, leading to an increase in organ size.
  • Hyperplasia: an increase in the absolute number of cells in response to a stimulus or persistent cell injury.

Metaplasia

  • Metaplasia: a reversible change from one adult cell type to another, often in response to chronic irritation or inflammation.

Fatty Change (Steatosis)

  • Steatosis: an abnormal accumulation of intracellular neutral fat in parenchymatous organs, most commonly the liver and heart.
  • Microscopic feature: accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, displacing other organelles.

Cell Injury

  • Reversible cell injury: characterized by cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration, marked by cell swelling, mitochondrial damage, and impaired cellular functions.
  • Irreversible cell injury: characterized by fatty change (steatosis), necrosis, or apoptosis.

Necrosis

  • Necrosis: cell death caused by external factors, such as toxins, trauma, or ischemia, leading to inflammatory responses and tissue damage.

Cellular Responses

  • Hypertrophy primarily results in an increase in organ size.
  • Metaplasia is characterized by a change from one adult cell type to another.

Test your knowledge of cellular responses to stress, adaptation, and cell injury with this quiz based on Lecture 4 by Dr. Manar Ahmed Abdelrahman. Explore the concepts of homeostasis, adaptive capacity, reversible and irreversible cell injury.

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