Cardiovascular System Quiz

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28 Questions

Which vessel is more compliant according to the text?

Veins

What happens to blood volume in the venous circulation if compliance increases?

Increases

What is the relationship between resistance and flow according to the text?

Inversely proportional

How does viscosity affect resistance according to Poiseuille’s law?

Increasing viscosity increases resistance

What factor can help increase stroke volume by increasing preload on the heart?

Skeletal muscle movement and venous valves

What happens to stroke volume, cardiac output, and blood to the brain when there is no venous return from the legs?

They all decrease

What is the primary determinant of afterload?

Resistance of the arterial system

What factor can increase cardiac workload without increasing cardiac output?

Increased afterload

What primarily determines heart rate?

Balance between SNS and PNS

Which factor can increase vascular tension and subsequently increase blood pressure?

Increased activity in vasomotor center

What do baroreceptors do when stretched due to high pressure?

Inhibit the cardiovascular control center in the medulla

What is the effect of baroreceptor stimulation?

Lowers blood pressure

What is the effect of chronic hypertension on baroreceptors?

They can adapt and be reset to a higher level

What is the primary factor in the regulation of blood pressure?

Sympathetic nervous system

What does the SNS primarily release at the smooth muscle of most arteries?

Norepinephrine

What is the effect of increased afterload on stroke volume?

Decreases stroke volume

What is the primary determinant of flow per minute (Q) in the given equation Q=P1-P2 R?

Resistance (R)

How does doubling the radius of a vessel affect resistance?

Resistance decreases 16 times

Which part of the vascular system primarily alters blood flow through vasodilation and vasoconstriction?

Arterioles

What is the primary determinant of stroke volume (SV)?

Preload

How is mean arterial pressure (MAP) calculated?

[systolic BP + (2 x Diastolic BP)] / 3

What is the relationship between blood velocity and the cross-sectional area of vessels?

Blood velocity is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area

What determines the force generated by muscle fibers in the heart?

Initial sarcomere length and stretch on the individual fibers

Which factor influences blood pressure by determining cardiac output (CO)?

Heart rate

What can overstretching the heart lead to?

Limitation of effective contractions

What type of flow in vessels moves smoothly in the center and can cause thrombus formation at vessel walls?

Laminar flow

Which vessels are the primary sites of regulation of vascular flow?

Arterioles

What is the primary determinant of blood pressure and blood flow regulation?

Vascular resistance

Study Notes

Cardiac Output, Blood Pressure, and Blood Flow Regulation

  • Resistance (r4) is the primary determinant of Q=P1-P2 R, where Q is flow per min, P is pressure, and R is resistance
  • Resistance is inversely proportional to radius4; doubling the radius decreases resistance 16 times, increasing blood flow
  • Vascular system primarily uses resistance to alter blood flow, through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles
  • Arterioles are the primary sites of regulation of vascular flow, and drugs affecting arterioles have direct effects on BP and blood flow
  • Blood velocity is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of vessels
  • Laminar flow in the center of vessels moves smoothly, while turbulent flow at vessel walls can cause thrombus formation
  • Arterial pressure pulses include systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP)
  • MAP is calculated as [systolic BP + (2 x Diastolic BP)] / 3, an estimation of average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle
  • Blood pressure is influenced by cardiac output (CO) and vascular resistance, determined by heart rate, stroke volume, and resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricles
  • Stroke volume (SV) is determined by preload, which is proportional to venous return, and the Frank-Starling law
  • The force generated by muscle fibers is proportional to the initial sarcomere length and the stretch on the individual fibers, allowing the heart to adjust its SV based on venous return
  • Overstretching the heart can limit its effective contractions, but this is rare and occurs only in chronic disease

Test your knowledge of cardiac output, blood pressure, and blood flow regulation with this quiz. Explore concepts such as resistance, arteriole regulation, blood velocity, arterial pressure pulses, and the factors influencing stroke volume and blood pressure.

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