Exam 3 - Cardiovascular
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Exam 3 - Cardiovascular

Test your knowledge on different types of valvular heart diseases such as tricuspid regurgitation, tricuspid stenosis, and mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Identify common symptoms and understand the pathophysiology behind each condition.

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@CorgiLover

Questions and Answers

Which heart defect is characterized by an abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery, causing a left-to-right shunt?

Patent ductus arteriosus

In which condition does desaturated blood and saturated blood mix in the chambers or great arteries of the heart?

Transposition of the great arteries

Which heart defect involves a vessel located between the junction of the main and left pulmonary arteries?

Patent ductus arteriosus

Which condition results in increased workload on the left side of the heart due to a shunt from the aorta to the pulmonary artery?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect is characterized by right- or left-sided outflow tract obstructions that prohibit blood flow out of the heart?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arising from the left ventricle?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common clinical manifestation of pediatric systemic hypertension?

<p>Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels greater than the 95th percentile for age and gender</p> Signup and view all the answers

What occurs when there is an underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch?

<p>Systemic perfusion is decreased resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic feature of coarctation of the aorta?

<p>Low blood pressure in the upper extremities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition requires communication between the two separate circuits to ensure extrauterine survival?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by narrowing of the lumen of the aorta that impedes blood flow and can occur almost anywhere between the origin of the aortic arch and the bifurcation of the aorta in the lower abdomen?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition results in increased pulmonary venous return to the left side of the heart, leading to hypertrophy of the left ventricle and eventually heart failure?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition involves a defect where left-sided cardiac structures develop abnormally?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition can be described as an abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery allowing mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which condition might older children present with hypertension in the upper extremities, decreased or absent pulses in the lower extremities, cool mottled skin, and leg cramps during exercise?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which congenital heart defect is characterized by narrowing of the aorta?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary feature of Tetralogy of Fallot?

<p>Pulmonary valve stenosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which congenital heart defect involves the persistence of a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which condition does the left side of the heart (left ventricle and aorta) not fully develop?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which congenital heart defect involves a transposition where the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by the anterior and posterior cusps of the mitral valve billowing upward into the atrium during systole?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is associated with a diastolic murmur and is seen with pulmonary hypertension?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition involves the narrowing of the aorta, leading to increased pressure in the upper body and decreased pressure in the lower body?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

What leads to volume overload in the right atrium and ventricle, increased systemic venous blood pressure, and right heart failure?

<p>Tricuspid stenosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which heart condition does the ductus arteriosus fail to close after birth, leading to abnormal blood flow between the aorta and pulmonary artery?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition results from a congenital anomaly and is characterized by a systolic murmur?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition is characterized by underdevelopment of the left side of the heart, leading to poor blood flow to the body?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition has clinical manifestations that include Osler nodes and Janeway lesions?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

In Transposition of the great arteries, what is the major issue with the positioning of the aorta and pulmonary artery?

<p>They arise from the wrong ventricles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition results in abnormal circulation patterns due to improper positioning of the main arteries?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect involves a narrowing of the aorta, leading to increased workload on the left ventricle and decreased blood flow to the lower extremities?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect involves an abnormal connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, leading to a left-to-right shunt?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition leads to hypoplasia or underdevelopment of the left side of the heart, resulting in severe cyanosis after birth?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect involves an abnormal positioning of the great arteries, leading to separate systemic and pulmonary circulations?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition results in a patent connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, causing excess blood flow to the lungs?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect is associated with narrowing at the junction of the pulmonary artery and aorta, causing increased pressure on the left ventricle and decreased cardiac output?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect is related to an abnormally functioning valve that allows backflow from the left ventricle into the left atrium?

<p>Hypoplastic left heart syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which congenital heart defect results in separate systemic and pulmonary circulations due to an abnormal connection between the right and left sides of the heart?

<p>Transposition of the great arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect causes narrowing in the descending aorta, leading to reduced blood flow to the lower body and increased workload on the left ventricle?

<p>Coarctation of the aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect leads to excess blood flow to the lungs due to an open connection between the pulmonary artery and aorta?

<p>Patent ductus arteriosus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of angina is characterized by unpredictable chest pain?

<p>Prinzmetal angina</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process that occurs in the myocardium after a heart attack?

<p>Remodeling</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lipoprotein is responsible for 'reverse cholesterol transport'?

<p>Low levels of HDL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common complication of acute coronary syndromes?

<p>Dysrhythmias</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of myocardial ischemia presents with no detectable symptoms?

<p>Silent ischemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main role of elevated VLDL (triglycerides) in atherogenesis?

<p>Play a role in endothelial injury</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term describes the temporary loss of contractile function in the myocardium after perfusion has been restored?

<p>Myocardial stunning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic feature of angina pectoris?

<p>Transient substernal chest discomfort</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of smooth muscle bands (precapillary sphincters) at the junctions between metarterioles and capillaries?

<p>Regulate blood flow into capillary beds</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the heart wall contains the thickest layer of cardiac muscle?

<p>Myocardium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the epicardium in the heart?

<p>Protection and lubrication of the heart</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do elastic arteries differ from muscular arteries in terms of function?

<p>Elastic arteries can stretch to absorb energy, while muscular arteries can vasoconstrict and vasodilate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the endothelium in blood vessels?

<p>Transportation of substances</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the mediastinum located anatomically?

<p>Above the diaphragm and lungs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure separates the ventricles within the heart?

<p>Interventricular septum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during diastole in the cardiac cycle?

<p>The heart chambers relax</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor primarily influences cardiac output by affecting the heart rate and stroke volume?

<p>Contractility</p> Signup and view all the answers

In systolic heart failure, what is the primary issue with cardiac output?

<p>Impaired contractility</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by a higher end diastolic left ventricular pressure transmitted to the pulmonary circulation leading to pulmonary congestion?

<p>Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common cause of decreased contractility in myocardial infarction?

<p>Ejection problem</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which clinical manifestation is distinctive of right heart failure?

<p>Pedal edema</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of increased afterload in heart failure?

<p>Decreased contractility</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition involves the anterior and posterior cusps of the mitral valve billowing upward into the atrium during systole?

<p>Mitral valve prolapse syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic feature is seen in pulmonic regurgitation?

<p>Diastolic murmur</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition leads to signs and symptoms similar to both right and left sided heart failure?

<p>Constrictive pericarditis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common clinical manifestation of infective endocarditis?

<p>Painful erythematous nodules on the fingers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition involves the pericardium becoming rigid, impairing filling and leading to symptoms similar to right and left sided heart failure?

<p>Constrictive pericarditis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition shares a pathophysiology similar to mitral stenosis but occurs on the right side of the heart?

<p>Tricuspid stenosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic feature of pulmonic stenosis?

<p>Systolic murmur</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a clinical manifestation of tricuspid regurgitation?

<p>Systolic murmur increasing with inspiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the underlying pathophysiology of high output heart failure?

<p>Reduced systemic vascular resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by an EKG with saw-tooth appearance of P waves?

<p>Atrial flutter</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the common cause of high output heart failure?

<p>Anemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition involves congenital accessory pathways that conduct rapidly and bypass the AV node?

<p>Pre-excitation syndromes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common risk associated with atrial fibrillation?

<p>Stroke</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by an inability of the heart to supply the body with bloodborne nutrients despite normal or elevated myocardial contractility?

<p>High output failure</p> Signup and view all the answers

In multifocal atrial tachycardia, what distinguishes it from other arrhythmias?

<p>Multiple P-wave morphologies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart condition involves a reentrant circuit in the atrium causing a chaotic baseline on EKG?

<p>Atrial flutter</p> Signup and view all the answers

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