Cardiac Muscle Contraction and Conduction Quiz

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36 Questions

What is the role of Ca++ channels at 0mV during repolarization?

They close

Which component of the heart's conduction system would fire the slowest times per minute?

Purkinje fibers

What would be the heart rate range if the AV node was the primary pacemaker without endocrine control?

40 - 60 BPM

How many leads are typically used for recording an ECG or EKG?

12 leads

What happens to K+ channels at 0mV during typical repolarization?

They open

What is the main function of P wave in an ECG?

Depolarization of the atria

Which phase of the cardiac cycle is characterized by the pumping of blood into circulation?

Ventricular systole

What is the primary function of an artificial pacemaker in the context of heart function?

Delivers electrical impulses for effective heart contractions

During which phase of the cardiac cycle does the end systolic volume (ESV) refer to the amount of blood left in the ventricles after stroke volume is pushed out?

Ventricular diastole

What is the significance of the T wave in an ECG?

Repolarization of the ventricles

What is the primary purpose of an Automatic External Defibrillator (AED)?

Corrects fibrillations

Where is the heart located in the body?

Between the lungs in the mediastinum

Which chamber of the heart is responsible for pumping blood out to the body or lungs?

Ventricles

Which layer of the heart is most superficial?

Epicardium

What is the function of auricles in the heart?

Collecting and holding blood to empty into the atria

Which structure separates the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium?

Pericardial Cavity

What is the size of a typical heart compared to that of an athlete's heart?

Athlete's heart is larger

Which type of cells in the heart initiate an electrical potential at a fixed rate?

Autorhythmic cells

What is the purpose of the desmosomes in cardiac muscle cells?

Stop cells from ripping apart

Why do semilunar valves make an audible sound as they close?

They have no muscular attachments

What is the main function of the Purkinje fibers in the heart?

Spread the impulse around the ventricles

Which structure divides the heart into chambers and are physical extensions of myocardium?

Septum

What happens when cardiac conductive cells plateau during depolarization?

Ca++ channels open

What is the role of endothelins released by the endothelium in the heart?

Regulate growth patterns of cardiac muscle cells

How do tricuspid and mitral valves close in the heart?

Due to papillary muscles

What is the primary function of coronary veins in the circulatory system?

Return deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium

Which heart sound is associated with the closing of the semilunar valves?

S2

What is the normal range for Cardiac Output (CO) in liters per minute?

4 - 8 L/min

What is the formula to calculate Cardiac Output (CO)?

CO = HR * SV

Which factor increases Heart Rate (HR) through sympathetic stimulation?

Norepinephrine release

What is the percentage range for a normal Ejection Fraction?

50% - 70%

Which reflex is triggered by increased blood in the atria resulting in a sympathetic response to increase heart rate?

Atrial reflex

How can caffeine and nicotine affect Heart Rate?

Increase it

Which electrolyte alteration can decrease Heart Rate?

Alkalosis (too few hydrogen ions)

What happens if there is little time for blood to fill during increased Heart Rate?

(ESV) End-Systolic Volume decreases

Which event occurs before other heart sounds when blood is being pushed into a stiff ventricle?

S4 sound

Test your knowledge on the processes involved in cardiac muscle contraction and conduction, including ion channels, refractory periods, and the role of calcium ions. Explore topics such as SA node firing rate, AV node function, and the atrioventricular bundle. Challenge yourself with questions on troponin, myosin-actin cross bridge formation, and endocrine control of heart rate.

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