Carbohydrates and Proteins: Essential Nutrients in Food Molecules

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6 Questions

What is the primary role of carbohydrates in the body?

Supply immediate energy

Which type of carbohydrate provides a slower energy supply compared to simple carbohydrates?


What are monosaccharides commonly known as?

Single sugars

Which of the following is true about proteins?

They are organized into long chains of amino acids

What makes some amino acids essential?

They must be obtained through the diet

Where are simple carbohydrates commonly found?

Fruits and dairy products

Study Notes

Food molecules, specifically carbohydrates and proteins, play crucial roles in providing the body with essential nutrients. Carbohydrates are primarily responsible for supplying immediate energy, while proteins contribute to maintaining tissues and facilitating various bodily functions.


Carbohydrates are classified into three types based on their molecular structure: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides, also known as simple sugars, are single sugars like glucose, fructose, and galactose. They are the smallest carbohydrate molecules and are typically used by the body for immediate energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods like fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are formed by linking multiple monosaccharides together. They provide a slower energy supply compared to simple carbohydrates, making them ideal for sustained energy throughout the day.


Proteins are composed of amino acids, which are organized into long chains. Proteins provide structural support and are involved in various biochemical processes in the body. Some amino acids are considered essential, meaning they cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Essential amino acids include isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Although protein is not typically used directly for energy, it can be broken down and used for energy generation if insufficient calorie intake occurs.

Learn about the roles of carbohydrates and proteins in providing energy and supporting bodily functions. Explore the different types of carbohydrates like monosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as the importance of proteins composed of amino acids in maintaining tissues and facilitating biochemical processes.

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