Cancer Epidemiology

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20 Questions

What percentage of all cancer cases were attributable to infections in 2018, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers?

13%

According to the global burden of cancer, what is the estimated number of new cancer cases in 2023?

20 million

What is the estimated age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) per 100,000 person-years for infections-attributable cancer cases in 2018?

25.0 cases

What proportion of people worldwide develop cancer during their lifetime, according to the global burden of cancer?

1 in 5

How many deaths occur annually due to cancer, according to the global burden of cancer?

10 million

What is the estimated number of new cancer cases attributable to infections in 2018?

2.2 million

What proportion of men worldwide develop cancer during their lifetime, according to the global burden of cancer?

1 in 5

What is the estimated number of cancer deaths in 2022, according to the global burden of cancer?

9.7 million

What percentage of global cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries?

70%

According to GLOBOCAN 2018, what is the ranking of breast cancer in terms of cancer mortality?

5th

What is the leading cause of death globally, according to the text?

Heart disease

What is the approximate percentage of global deaths due to cancer?

1 in 6

What is the ranking of lung cancer in terms of cancer mortality, according to GLOBOCAN 2018?

1st

What is the projected change in cancer burden between 2020 and 2040, according to GLOBOCAN 2020?

Increase

What proportion of cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed countries?

More than half

What is the projected increase in cancer burden by 2030?

A more than doubling of cases

Where are the greatest increases in cancer cases projected to occur?

Low- and middle-income countries

What is the estimated lifetime risk of developing cancer?

One in three

Why may cancer statistics from sub-Saharan Africa not truly reflect the pattern of cancer?

Due to limited healthcare access

By what percentage is the global cancer burden projected to increase over the next two decades?

60%

Study Notes

Global Cancer Burden

  • In developed countries, an unhealthy diet and inactive lifestyle are attributed to as many cancer cases as smoking.
  • A third of all cancer deaths are linked to cigarette smoking, while obesity is associated with colon, breast, uterine, oesophageal, and kidney cancers.
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, accounting for 19.4% of total deaths, followed by liver, colorectal, stomach, and breast cancers.

Cancer Mortality Rates

  • According to WHO (2017), lung cancer accounted for 1.69 million deaths, liver cancer for 788,000 deaths, and colorectal cancer for 774,000 deaths.
  • According to GLOBOCAN (2018), lung cancer accounted for 1.76 million deaths, liver cancer for 781,631 deaths, and colorectal cancer for 551,269 deaths.

Projections and Forecast

  • By 2025, the number of new cancer cases is expected to increase to 19.3 million per year due to population growth and ageing.
  • By 2030, the cancer burden is expected to more than double, with 26.4 million new cases and 17 million deaths.
  • By 2040, the number of new cancer cases is expected to increase to 30 million, with the greatest increases in low- and middle-income countries.

Cancer in Nigeria

  • The burden of cancer in Nigeria is unknown due to limited access to health services.
  • 92% of cancer statistics from sub-Saharan Africa are derived from hospital-based cancer registries.

What is Cancer?

  • Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells, invasion of adjacent tissues, and eventual death if left untreated.
  • There are over 200 different types of cancer, with four types (lung, breast, prostate, and large bowel) accounting for more than half of all cases.

Categories of Cancer

  • Cancer can be categorized based on the cells affected, including:
    • Carcinomas (epithelial cells)
    • Sarcomas (mesodermal cells)
    • Lymphomas (cells of bone marrow and immune system)

Global Burden of Cancer

  • Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, with an estimated 20 million new cases in 2023.
  • One in 5 people develop cancer in their lifetime, with one in 5 men and one in 6 women worldwide developing cancer during their lifetime.
  • Infections are attributed to 13% of all cancer cases, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 25.0 cases per 100,000 person-years.

This quiz covers the definition and characteristics of cancer, including abnormal cell growth, invasiveness, and mortality. It also touches on the prevalence of different types of cancer.

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