Chapter 10

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25 Questions

What is the definition of racism?

The belief in the superiority or inferiority of human groups based on physical characteristics

What was the 'head tax' in Canada?

A flat fee Chinese immigrants had to pay to enter Canada between 1885 and 1923

According to Lincoln Alexander, what is the current state of racism in Canada?

Racism persists and even thrives in Canada

Which event led to the greatest mass movement in the history of Canada?

The forced eviction of Japanese Canadians from the Pacific Coast in 1942

What was the contribution of new immigrants, especially non-white immigrants, to Canada's economy annually?

$55 billion

What was the purpose of the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885?

To exclude or limit the number of Chinese immigrants to Canada

When was slavery abolished in Canada?


Which group arrived in Nova Scotia after the American War of Independence?

Black Loyalists

When was multiculturalism adopted as an official policy in Canada?


What was the percentage of foreign-born individuals in Canada according to the 2011 National Household Survey?


Which racialized group represented the largest percentage of the racialized population in Canada in 2011?

South Asians

In 2013, which countries were the top source countries for permanent residents admitted to Canada?

China, India, Philippines

What percentage of police-reported hate crimes in 2013 involved violent offences?


Which population was the most frequently targeted in race or ethnicity-motivated hate crimes in 2013?

Black populations

What amendment did the federal government make to the Criminal Code in 1996?

Strengthen sentencing for hate-motivated offences

What are three issues likely to affect the work of practitioners in immigrant resettlement?

Skills recognition, family reunification backlogs, Canada’s foreign worker program

What role do Canadian social workers play in the immigrant resettlement process?

Providing direct support to immigrants and creating conditions for their integration into Canadian society

Why is a strong knowledge of immigration policy essential for social workers involved in immigrant resettlement?

To understand recent shifts in immigration policy and their impact on immigrant integration

What changes were announced to the Interim Federal Health Program in April 2012?

All refugees lost access to medication coverage, vision care, and dental care

Who were spared from the cutbacks to the Interim Federal Health Program after public pressure?

Government Assisted Refugees (GARs)

What is the focus of the recently revised Canadian Association for Social Work Education’s Standards for Accreditation?

Complete social work curriculum with content related to newcomer populations

What is the first step in effective practice with immigrants according to the text?

A needs assessment

What was the focus of Canada's immigration policy historically?

Attracting highly skilled and educated individuals

What was the impact of lack of recognition of foreign credentials on immigrants in Canada?

Underemployment due to foreign skills not being recognized

What action did the Government of Canada take in 2016 to address the recognition of foreign credentials?

Announced a $50 million investment to develop a framework for faster assessment and recognition

Study Notes

Human Rights Law and Hate Crimes in Canada

  • Both federal and provincial human rights law in Canada prohibits hate propaganda and discrimination in various aspects of life, such as employment, property leasing and sale, public accommodation, services, and membership in labor unions and professional associations.
  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which superseded the Canadian Bill of Rights in 1982, guarantees fundamental freedoms, democratic rights, legal rights, equality rights, official bilingualism, and multicultural character of Canada.
  • Hate crimes in Canada are reported by police and approximately 1,167 criminal incidents motivated by hate were reported in 2013, with 51% motivated by race or ethnic group hatred, 28% by religious hatred, and 16% by sexual orientation hatred.
  • Black populations were the most frequently targeted (22%) in race or ethnicity-motivated hate crimes in 2013, while Jewish populations were the most common target (16%) in religion-motivated hate crimes.
  • 40% of police-reported hate crimes in 2013 involved violent offences, such as assault, threats, and criminal harassment, and the number of violent hate crimes increased by 4% from the previous year.
  • Hate crimes are prejudice-motivated crimes, often violent, targeting victims based on their membership or perceived membership in certain social groups such as ethnicity, disability, religion, gender identity, or sexual orientation.
  • The federal government amended the Criminal Code in 1996 to strengthen sentencing for hate-motivated offences, prompting community discussion and raising awareness of hate crime issues.
  • Social workers are using innovative anti-racist approaches emphasizing community empowerment to combat hate crimes and are involved in outreach, education, and fostering advocacy and support groups.
  • Education and community work are important in preventing hate crimes and complement hate crime laws, and social workers collaborate with community organizations to promote an anti-racist perspective through various activities.
  • Hate-motivated crimes need to be addressed head-on, not only by those immediately affected but by all those who oppose such acts, and a collaborative, community-based approach can help minimize the extent of hate crime activity and strengthen the resolve and solidarity of its victims.
  • Police-reported hate crime data reflects information reported by police services covering 99% of Canada's population, and it is crucial for understanding the prevalence and nature of hate crimes in the country.
  • Human rights commissions in Canada, at both federal and provincial levels, are charged with addressing human rights abuses, but they have often been hampered by limited resources and case backlogs, leading to underreporting of discrimination cases.

Challenges in Foreign Education and Skills Recognition for Immigrants in Canada

  • Canada's immigration policy historically focused on attracting highly skilled and educated individuals to contribute to the nation's economic growth.
  • Many highly skilled immigrants face underemployment in Canada due to their foreign skills not being recognized or valued.
  • Lack of recognition of foreign credentials and experience is a major stumbling block for immigrants in Canada.
  • Immigrants often experience racism and discrimination, hindering their integration into the Canadian workforce.
  • The assumption that foreign credentials are not up to Canadian standards often leads to the requirement for immigrant professionals to upgrade their education.
  • The lack of recognition of prior educational achievements and work experience affects immigrant professionals emotionally and financially.
  • The Government of Canada announced a $50 million investment in 2016 to develop a framework to speed up the assessment and recognition of foreign credentials.
  • Advocacy is necessary to address systemic obstacles preventing immigrant professionals from contributing to Canadian society.
  • Family reunification in Canada is allowed for specific members of immediate family, subject to certain conditions.
  • Parents and grandparents make up a small portion of immigrants in the family class, but face extraordinarily slow processing for family reunification.
  • Long delays in family reunification can have negative impacts on the health, education, and psychological well-being of family members waiting to reunite in Canada.
  • The new Liberal immigration minister announced an increase in the number of applications accepted for parents and grandparents to immigrate to Canada, but the demand far exceeds the cap, calling for new approaches to address the issue.

Test your knowledge of human rights law and hate crimes in Canada with this quiz. Explore the legal framework, statistics on hate crimes, targeted populations, and initiatives to combat prejudice-motivated offenses. Learn about the role of social workers, the impact of education and community work, and the importance of collaborative efforts in addressing hate crime activity.

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