Canadian History: The Confederation of Canada

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What is the name of the act that established the Dominion of Canada?

The British North America Act

What was the main purpose of the provincial right to tax personal income?

To allow provinces to exercise more autonomy

What type of system did Canada's Confederation establish?

Confederal system

Who recognized the importance of protecting the rights of the provinces?

The Fathers of Confederation

What was the result of the British North America Act?

The creation of the Dominion of Canada

How many times did the Dominion government exercise its power to veto provincial attempts to hamper interprovincial trade and commerce in the first 30 years after Confederation?

65 times

What is the primary purpose of the British North America Act?

To create a federal system of government that protects provincial rights

What was the main reason for the formation of Confederation in Canada?

To protect provincial rights and establish a balance between federal and provincial powers

What is the term used to describe the system of government established in Canada through Confederation?

Federal system

Who were the key delegates who attended the conferences leading to Confederation?

The Fathers of Confederation and British politicians

What was the significance of the Great Coalition in the formation of Confederation?

It supported the idea of Confederation and played a crucial role in the negotiations

What was the outcome of the London Conference in 1866?

The British government agreed to the terms of Confederation as outlined by the Fathers of Confederation

Study Notes

Canada's Confederation

Canada's Confederation refers to the process by which the British North American colonies joined together to form the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. The term "Confederation" stands for both the political process that united these colonies and the date on which the Dominion of Canada was created.

British North America Act

The British North America Act, also known as the Constitution Act, 1867, is Canada's Constitution. It was passed by the British Parliament and established the Dominion of Canada, which included the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. This act laid the foundation for Canada's federal system of government.

Provincial Rights

The Fathers of Confederation recognized the importance of protecting the rights of the provinces within the new federation. They granted each province the right to tax personal income, although few expected provinces to exercise this power. The Dominion government was also given the power to veto provincial attempts to hamper interprovincial trade and commerce, which was exercised 65 times in the first 30 years after confederation.

Confederal System

Canada's Confederation established a confederal system, which is a type of federation where the central government has limited powers and the provinces have more autonomy. This system allows each province to have its own legislature and government, while the federal government has control over certain areas, such as foreign affairs and defense.

Fathers of Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation were the delegates who attended the conferences held at Charlottetown and United Kingdom, leading to Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation, and their number expanded to include those who brought other provinces into Confederation after 1867. Some notable Fathers of Confederation include George Brown, George-Étienne Cartier, Sir John A. Macdonald, and Alexander Galt.

Reasons for Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation sought to create a stronger political union among the British North American colonies. They aimed to protect provincial rights and establish a balance between the powers of the federal and provincial governments.

The Great Coalition

The Great Coalition was an alliance formed by the Reformers and the Conservatives in the Province of Canada during the 1860s. This coalition supported the idea of Confederation and played a crucial role in the negotiations leading to the creation of the Dominion of Canada.

Charlottetown Conference

The Charlottetown Conference was held in 1864 and marked the beginning of the Confederation process. Delegates from the British North American colonies met to discuss the possibility of forming a federal union.

The Quebec Conference

The Quebec Conference was held in 1864, and it was here that the Fathers of Confederation drafted the proposed constitution for the new federation.

Seventy-Two Resolutions

The Seventy-Two Resolutions were a set of proposals put forward by the Fathers of Confederation at the Quebec Conference. These resolutions outlined the structure and powers of the new federal government and the provinces.

The London Conference

The London Conference was held in 1866, and it was here that the British government agreed to the terms of Confederation as outlined by the Fathers of Confederation. The British North America Act, which became Canada's Constitution, was passed by the British Parliament, and Canada's Confederation was established.

In conclusion, Canada's Confederation was a significant event in Canadian history that led to the formation of the Dominion of Canada. It established a federal system of government that protected the rights of provinces and created a balance between the powers of the federal and provincial governments. The Fathers of Confederation, through their negotiations and drafting of the British North America Act, laid the foundation for Canada's current political structure.

Learn about the process of Canada's Confederation, the British North America Act, provincial rights, and the key figures involved in shaping the country's federal system of government. Discover the events and negotiations that led to the formation of the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.

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