(Boraginaceae) Carl Linnaeus and the History of Taxonomy

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Who is considered the proponent of Botany?


Who was the first to introduce the concepts of monocots and dicots?

Albertus Magnus

Which ancient scholar gathered knowledge on medicinal plants and wrote about them in De materia Medica?


Which botanist established the Leiden Botanical Garden?

Charles Clusius

Who illustrated native plants from the Americas and tried to outdo Brunfels' work?

Jerome Bock

Which botanist believed that botany must be based on exact observations and wrote 'Stirpium Adversaria Nova'?

Matthias de L’Obel

Who is considered the Father of the 'Family' concept in botany?

Pierre Magnol

Who proposed dealing with 18,000 species and considering all plant parts in classification?

John Ray

Which botanist attempted to use a binomial system but was not consistent with it?

Gaspard Bauhin

Who had a grasp of the genus concept and believed in the value of flower and fruit characters over habit?

Andrea Caesalpino

Who was the botanist who published Species Plantarum in 1753?

Carl Linnaeus

Which work marked the beginning of binomial nomenclature in 1758?

Systema Naturae 10th

Which botanist is known as the Father of the 'genus' concept?

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

Who found John Ray's classification cumbersome and proposed 25 classes of dicotyledons and 4 classes of monocotyledons?

Pierre Magnol

Who criticized Linnaeus' work, stating that it was wrong to impose an artificial order on the natural world?

Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon

Which botanist emphasized that plant classification should not favor certain characters over others?

Michel Adanson

What was one of the rules adopted by the Paris Botanical Congress regarding plant names?

Priority-date of publication

Who founded the cladistic era in systematics?

Ernst Haeckel and August Eichler

Which scientist used a sexual system for defining species?

Carl Linnaeus

Who opened up pathways for evolutionary theory through his work on species and inherited characters?

Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon

Which species concept focuses on unique morphological characters to distinguish species?

Morphological Concept

Which theory is associated with the inheritance of acquired characteristics?


Who elaborated the first nomenclatural laws of zoology?

Hugh Edwin Strickland

In which species concept do members compete more with each other than with other species?

Ecological Concept

In systematics, what basic unit is used for comparison in various fields of biology according to the text?


What does the Evolution concept result in?

Formation of new species

Which concept relies on synapomorphy and autapomorphy to distinguish species?

Phylogenetic Concept

Which concept defines a species based on shared common ancestry and evolutionary history?

Phylogenetic Concept

What is a characteristic of species under the Morphological Concept?

Unique morphological characters

Study Notes

Early Botanists

  • Theophrastus: student of Aristotle and Plato, wrote "Historia Plantarum"
  • Dioscorides: gathered knowledge on medicinal plants, wrote "De materia Medica" (~600 species, mostly Mediterranean)
  • Dioscorea: species named after Dioscorides
  • Pliny the Elder: discussed diverse plant topics in "Historia Naturalis"
  • Albertus Magnus: described various garden vegetables, introduced monocots and dicots

Development of Modern Botany

  • Otto Brunfels: wrote "Herbarium Vivae Eicones" with illustrated descriptions of plants and medicinal uses
  • Brunfesia: genus named after Brunfels
  • Jerome Bock: wrote "New Kreuterbuch" with detailed descriptions and illustrations of ~700 plants
  • Leonhart Fuchs: wrote "De Historia Stirpium" with illustrated descriptions of native plants from the Americas
  • Charles Clusius: researched indigenous plants and animals, translated medicinal treatises and herbals, and established the Leiden Botanical Garden
  • Clusia: genus named after Clusius

Development of Scientific Systematics

  • Matthias de L'Obel: emphasized the importance of exact observations in botany
  • Gaspard Bauhin: attempted to use a binomial system in "Prodromus Theatri Botanici"
  • Bauhinia: genus named after Bauhin
  • Andrea Caesalpino: wrote "De Plantis Libri" with descriptions of 1520 plant species, emphasizing flower and fruit characters
  • Caesalpinia: genus named after Caesalpino
  • John Ray: dealt with 18,000 species, emphasizing the importance of considering all plant parts in classification
  • Pierre Magnol: developed the "Family" concept, grouping plants into 76 families
  • Magnolia: genus named after Magnol
  • Joseph Pitton de Tournefort: developed the "genus" concept, classifying plants into 698 genera
  • Tournefortia: genus named after Tournefort

Binomial Nomenclature and Evolutionary Theory

  • Carl Linnaeus: developed the modern botanical and zoological taxonomy, introduced binomial nomenclature in "Species Plantarum"
  • Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon: criticized Linnaeus' work, proposing an evolutionary theory
  • Michel Adanson: developed a classification system using a range of characters
  • Adansonia: genus named after Adanson
  • Antoine Laurent de Jussieu: developed a natural system based on many characters in "Genera Plantarum"
  • Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck: proposed the theory of use and disuse, evolutionary theory, and inheritance of acquired characteristics
  • Augustin Pyramus de Candolle: developed the theory of botanical nomenclature, emphasizing priority-date of publication
  • Otto Kuntze: applied Candolle's Law from 1867
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: developed the evolutionary theory

Micro Systematics and Species Concepts

  • Species: a basic unit in biology, with different concepts including morphological, ecological, and phylogenetic
  • Morphological Concept: species as members fundamentally similar in structure and form
  • Ecological Concept: species as members that compete more with each other than with other species
  • Phylogenetic Concept: species as a set of organisms sharing a common ancestor of monophyletic origin and similar evolutionary history

Explore the milestones in the history of botanical and zoological taxonomy, including the works of Carl Linnaeus such as 'Species Plantarum' and 'Systema Naturae'. Learn about the transition from artificial classification to post-scientific systematics as pioneered by Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon.

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