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# Biostatistics Tutorial 1: Measurement

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@RewardingTopology

### What is a characteristic that takes on more than one value called?

• Data item
• Variable (correct)
• Constant
• Characteristic
• ### Which of the following is an example of a variable?

• Country of residence
• Vehicle type
• All of the above (correct)
• ### What is the independent variable in a study?

• The effect
• A dependent variable
• The cause (correct)
• A constant
• ### What is the dependent variable in a study?

<p>The effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In a sample of 50 males, what is gender considered as?

<p>A constant</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is an example of a dependent variable in the context of the study on the impact of smoking on colorectal cancer risk?

<p>Colorectal cancer risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is an example of an independent variable in the context of the study on HBV infection?

<p>Economic status</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a snapshot of a data collection form called?

<p>A questionnaire</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main characteristic of nominal data?

<p>It falls into categories with no natural numerical value.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is the number of traffic accidents an example of?

<p>Discrete data</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is an example of ordinal data?

<p>Education level</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main characteristic of continuous data?

<p>It is not restricted to specific values.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is the variable 'diabetes' an example of?

<p>Binary data</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main characteristic of discrete data?

<p>It can only take on specific values.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is an example of continuous data?

<p>Birth weight</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is the variable 'age' an example of?

<p>Continuous data</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary concern of public health?

<p>To discover the causes of disease to make disease prevention possible</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main focus of epidemiology?

<p>To discover the causes of disease to make disease prevention possible</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the definition of statistics?

<p>A science concerned with the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data, and making decisions based on such analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is biostatistics primarily concerned with?

<p>The application of statistical methods to biological sciences and medical/health-related disciplines</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a population in the context of biostatistics?

<p>A collection of persons/things or characteristics in which we have the interest to investigate</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a sample in the context of biostatistics?

<p>A subset of a population</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is an example of a population in biostatistics?

<p>The collection of persons living in Dubai city who test positive for hepatitis C</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the key characteristic of a sample in biostatistics?

<p>It is a representative part of the population</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is 'Age' in Example 1?

<p>Quantitative continuous</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary goal of Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)?

<p>To visualize distributions and relationships</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the difference between a parameter and a statistic?

<p>A parameter is a characteristic of a population, while a statistic is a characteristic of a sample</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is 'Blood type' in Example 6?

<p>Categorical nominal</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of Descriptive Statistics?

<p>To summarize and describe the characteristics of a sample</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of data is 'Nutritional status' in Example 7?

<p>Categorical ordinal</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary goal of reducing bias in statistical analysis?

<p>To minimize the difference between the sample and population averages</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary step in data analysis?

<p>Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Introduction to Biostatistics

• Biostatistics is a branch of statistics that deals primarily with the biological sciences and medical/health-related disciplines.
• Public health investigations use quantitative methods, which combine epidemiology and biostatistics.

### Population and Sample

• A population is a collection of persons/things or characteristics in which we have an interest to investigate.
• A sample is a subset of a population.
• A sample should be a representative part of the population.

### Variables

• A variable is a characteristic that takes on more than one value.
• Examples of variables include age, gender, business income and expenses, country of birth, capital expenditure, class grades, eye color, and vehicle type.
• If a sample consists of 50 males, then gender is not a variable in this sample but is termed a constant.

### Independent and Dependent Variables

• The independent variable is the cause, and its value is independent of other variables in your study.
• The dependent variable is the effect, and its value depends on changes in the independent variable.

### Data Types/Measurement Scales

• Nominal variables measure values that fall into categories with no natural numerical value.
• Ordinal variables fall into categories that can be qualitatively ordered but have no intrinsic numerical value.
• Discrete data are measured quantities that take on specific values, usually integers.
• Continuous data are measured quantities not restricted to specific values.

### Central Dogma of Statistics

• A parameter is any summarization of the elements of a population.
• A statistic is any summarization of the elements of a sample.
• The goal is to minimize the difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter.

### Descriptive Statistics/Exploratory Data Analysis

• EDA allows us to visualize distributions and relationships, detect errors, and assess assumptions for confirmatory analysis.
• EDA is the first step of data analysis, and it's essential to look at your data to understand it.

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## Description

This quiz covers the basics of biostatistics in public health, including measurement and quantitative methods used in epidemiology to prevent disease.

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