## Questions and Answers

What is a characteristic that takes on more than one value called?

Which of the following is an example of a variable?

What is the independent variable in a study?

What is the dependent variable in a study?

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In a sample of 50 males, what is gender considered as?

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What is an example of a dependent variable in the context of the study on the impact of smoking on colorectal cancer risk?

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What is an example of an independent variable in the context of the study on HBV infection?

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What is a snapshot of a data collection form called?

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What is the main characteristic of nominal data?

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What type of data is the number of traffic accidents an example of?

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Which of the following is an example of ordinal data?

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What is the main characteristic of continuous data?

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What type of data is the variable 'diabetes' an example of?

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What is the main characteristic of discrete data?

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Which of the following is an example of continuous data?

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What type of data is the variable 'age' an example of?

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What is the primary concern of public health?

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What is the main focus of epidemiology?

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What is the definition of statistics?

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What is biostatistics primarily concerned with?

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What is a population in the context of biostatistics?

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What is a sample in the context of biostatistics?

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What is an example of a population in biostatistics?

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What is the key characteristic of a sample in biostatistics?

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What type of data is 'Age' in Example 1?

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What is the primary goal of Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)?

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What is the difference between a parameter and a statistic?

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What type of data is 'Blood type' in Example 6?

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What is the primary purpose of Descriptive Statistics?

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What type of data is 'Nutritional status' in Example 7?

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What is the primary goal of reducing bias in statistical analysis?

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What is the primary step in data analysis?

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## Study Notes

### Introduction to Biostatistics

- Biostatistics is a branch of statistics that deals primarily with the biological sciences and medical/health-related disciplines.
- Public health investigations use quantitative methods, which combine epidemiology and biostatistics.

### Population and Sample

- A population is a collection of persons/things or characteristics in which we have an interest to investigate.
- A sample is a subset of a population.
- A sample should be a representative part of the population.

### Variables

- A variable is a characteristic that takes on more than one value.
- Examples of variables include age, gender, business income and expenses, country of birth, capital expenditure, class grades, eye color, and vehicle type.
- If a sample consists of 50 males, then gender is not a variable in this sample but is termed a constant.

### Independent and Dependent Variables

- The independent variable is the cause, and its value is independent of other variables in your study.
- The dependent variable is the effect, and its value depends on changes in the independent variable.

### Data Types/Measurement Scales

- Nominal variables measure values that fall into categories with no natural numerical value.
- Ordinal variables fall into categories that can be qualitatively ordered but have no intrinsic numerical value.
- Discrete data are measured quantities that take on specific values, usually integers.
- Continuous data are measured quantities not restricted to specific values.

### Central Dogma of Statistics

- A parameter is any summarization of the elements of a population.
- A statistic is any summarization of the elements of a sample.
- The goal is to minimize the difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter.

### Descriptive Statistics/Exploratory Data Analysis

- EDA allows us to visualize distributions and relationships, detect errors, and assess assumptions for confirmatory analysis.
- EDA is the first step of data analysis, and it's essential to look at your data to understand it.

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## Description

This quiz covers the basics of biostatistics in public health, including measurement and quantitative methods used in epidemiology to prevent disease.