Biology: Morphology of Flowering Plants - Regions of Root

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11 Questions

Which structure protects the tender apex of a root as it makes its way through the soil?

Root cap

What is the primary function of root hairs in plants?

Absorbing water and minerals from the soil

In which type of roots are root hairs absent?

Mycorrhizal roots

Which region of the root is responsible for the growth in length of the root?

Region of elongation

Which group of plants have modified roots that store food?

Carrot and turnips

What is the delicate structure formed by some epidermal cells in the root region to aid in absorption?

Root hairs

What is the function of prop roots in plants?

Support the banyan tree

Which type of roots are present in maize and sugarcane?

Stilt roots

What is the function of pneumatophores in plants?

Aid in respiration

From where does the stem develop in a germinating seed?

Plumule

Which part of the stem are regions where leaves are born called?

Nodes

Study Notes

Regions of the Root

  • The root cap, also called calyptra, is a thimble-like structure that covers the apex of the root and protects it as it grows through the soil.
  • The region of meristematic activity is above the root cap, where cells divide repeatedly and are very small, thin-walled, and have dense protoplasm.
  • The region of elongation is where cells undergo rapid elongation and enlargement, responsible for the growth of the root in length.
  • The region of differentiation or maturation is where cells gradually differentiate and mature, and some epidermal cells form root hairs.
  • Root hairs are fine, thread-like structures that absorb water and minerals from the soil, and are absent in mycorrhizal roots.

Modifications of Root

  • Some roots change shape and structure to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals.
  • Examples of modified roots include:
    • Tap roots of carrot, turnips, and adventitious roots of sweet potato, which get swollen and store food.
    • Prop roots of banyan trees, which provide support.
    • Stilt roots of maize and sugarcane, which provide support.
    • Pneumatophores or breathing roots of Rhizophora and Sonneratia, which help in respiration.

Stem

  • The stem is the ascending part of the axis bearing branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
  • The stem develops from the plumule of the embryo of a germinating seed.
  • The stem has nodes, where leaves are born, and internodes, which are the portions between two nodes.

Learn about the morphology of flowering plants with a focus on the regions of the root, including the structure and function of the root cap and the region of meristematic activity. Understand the characteristics of roots in different types of plants.

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