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Instrument pilot pt.2

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20 Questions

What is the purpose of the fluid in the inclinometer of the Turn Coordinator?

To provide a smooth and easy movement of the ball

What does the turn indicator indicate when the bank is changing?

Rate of roll along the longitudinal axis

During taxi turns, what happens to the ball in the inclinometer?

It moves freely opposite the turn due to centrifugal force

What does a standard rate turn indicate on the Turn Coordinator?

A rate of turn of 3° per second

What is the purpose of the miniature aircraft in the turn coordinator?

To indicate the rate of roll and rate of turn

What happens to the miniature aircraft during a wings-level yaw or during a turn while taxing?

It indicates a turn in the direction of the taxing turn

What is indirectly indicated by the turn indicator during a turn?

The angle of bank

What does the turn coordinator not provide a direct indication of?

The banked attitude of the airplane

What is necessary to maintain a coordinated turn at a given rate for any given airspeed?

A specific angle of bank

What happens to the ball in the inclinometer during a turn?

It moves freely opposite the turn due to centrifugal force

What is the rate of turn required to complete 360° in 2 minutes?

3° per second

During a coordinated turn, what happens to the turning forces?

They are balanced, causing the ball to remain centered

What is the purpose of the ball in an aircraft?

To determine the quality of the turn

What is the primary function of a PFD?

To combine many flight instruments into a single presentation

What is a potential risk of automated systems in aircraft?

Complacency

What is the purpose of a glass cockpit?

To enhance situational awareness

What is the purpose of a backup conventional instrument in an aircraft?

To provide a backup system in case of failure

What is a characteristic of a skid?

The rate of turn is too great for the angle of bank

What is the purpose of the reference markers in an aircraft?

To aid in determining when the ball is in the center of the tube

What type of information is typically monitored on a multi-functional display?

A combination of engine, power plant, and navigation information

Study Notes

Turn and Slip Indicator

  • Prior to engine start, the turn indicator should show the needle centered, the tube full of fluid, and the ball approximately centered.
  • During taxi turns, the needle deflects in the direction of the turn, and the ball moves freely opposite the turn due to centrifugal force.

Turn Indicator

  • The miniature aircraft in the turn coordinator indicates the rate of roll and rate of turn.
  • The angle of bank is only indirectly indicated.
  • On taxi turns, the miniature aircraft indicates a turn in the direction of the taxing turn, and the ball moves to the outside of the turn due to centrifugal force.
  • The turn indicator does not give a direct indication of the banked attitude of the airplane.
  • A standard rate turn is indicated when the turn needle points to one of the small side marks, which corresponds to a rate of 3° per second.

Inclinometer (Turn Coordinator)

  • The inclinometer consists of a sealed curved glass tube containing kerosene and a ball that is free to move inside the tube.
  • The fluid provides a dampening action, ensuring smooth and easy movement of the ball.
  • During a coordinated turn, the ball remains centered in the tube due to balanced turning forces.
  • In a skid, the ball moves away from the center of the tube in the direction of excessive force.
  • In a slip, the ball moves to the outside of the turn due to insufficient rudder input.

Correcting for Skid or Slip

  • To correct for a skid, increase the bank angle, reduce the rate of turn, or use a combination of both to center the ball.
  • To correct for a slip, apply rudder pressure on the side the ball is exposed to.

Glass Cockpits

  • Glass cockpits integrate many flight instruments and aircraft performance data on one or more screens.
  • They are designed to increase safety by enhancing situational awareness and presenting data in an easy-to-read format.
  • Glass cockpits can display various flight status information, including altitude, airspeed, and navigation data.

Primary Flight Display (PFD)

  • A PFD combines many flight instruments into a single presentation, including the altimeter, attitude indicator, and turn coordinator.
  • A multi-functional display (MFD) is often used as a backup PFD and displays engine and power plant performance, fuel status, traffic, and other data.

Importance of Training and Instrumentation

  • Pilots flying with advanced avionics must continually learn the systems' functions, capabilities, and limitations.
  • All aircraft equipped with electric flight instruments must also contain a minimal set of backup conventional instruments, including an attitude indicator, airspeed indicator, and altimeter.
  • Automation can make flying safer, but pilots must be aware of its limitations and potential for complacency.
  • Aeronautical decision-making (ADM) is essential for safe flights with advanced technology.

Multi-Functional Display (MFD)

  • Used as a backup Primary Flight Display (PFD)
  • Monitors engine and power plant performance
  • Displays fuel status
  • Used for traffic monitoring
  • Enables route selection
  • Displays moving maps
  • Shows approach charts
  • Provides weather information
  • Used for terrain avoidance

This quiz covers the functionality and behavior of the turn and slip indicator during engine start and taxi turns in aviation.

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