Atomic Structure and Composition Quiz

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Each atom is made up of multiple smaller particles and its basic structure is a central nucleus surrounded by electrons which orbit around the nucleus in rings that we call ______

shells

The nucleus itself is made up of two different types of particles protons and ______

neutrons

The protons and the neutrons have the same ______

mass

Electrons meanwhile are comparatively tiny and have a mass two thousand times smaller which is often written as just very small or sometimes even ______

zero

Protons are positive and have a one plus ______

charge

Neutrons have no ______

charge

Electrons have a negative ______

charge

The size of an atom depends on which ______ it is

element

An atom is actually mostly ______ because we measure from the nucleus all the way to the outer electrons orbit it's kind of like the solar system you have one big thing in the middle and lots of smaller things orbiting it but between these things is mostly ______

empty space

The nucleus is actually really ______ if we compared its width to the width of the atom itself the nucleus is 10 000 times smaller although the electrons are actually even smaller and if we were to draw them to scale they'd be too small to see

tiny

The number of protons and electrons is equal the positive and negative charges balance out and so overall the atom is ______ atoms can lose or gain electrons though in which case the charges would no longer balance and the overall atom would become charged

neutral

If we gave our atom an extra electron we'd still have three protons but four electrons and so the charges would no longer balance and it would now be a ______ because there's more negative electrons than positive protons we'd call this a one minus ______ because it only has one extra electron

negative ion

If an atom loses electrons then there'll be more positive protons and negative electrons so we get a ______ and in this case we have three positive protons but only two negative electrons so our ion would have a one plus charge

positive ion

Each box in the table represents a different type of atom which we call an ______ so this box here represents the ______ oxygen and this one is the ______ of lithium we call these boxes nucleus symbols and they tell us a whole bunch of information about the ______ to see exactly what they tell us let's take a look at the nuclear symbols of oxygen and lithium

element

O represents oxygen and li represents lithium then in the bottom left corner we have the ______ which tells us how many protons the atoms of that element have so all oxygen atoms have eight protons and all lithium atoms have three protons and this is actually really important as it's the number of protons in an atom that determines which element that atom is

atomic number

If we wanted to find out how many ______ oxygen has we would do the mass number minus the atomic number which in this case would be 16 minus eight so it has eight ______

neutrons

The number of ______ an atom has isn't always the same as the number of protons though for example lithium has a mass number of seven so to find the number of ______ lithium has we would do seven minus three which equals four so lithium has four ______ even though it only has three protons

neutrons

As we said at the beginning of the video the number of protons and ______ in an atom is always the same so the atomic number also tells us how many ______ the atom has which means oxygen would have eight ______ and lithium would have three

electrons

Hope you found that video ______ and we'll see you next time

useful

The ______ is the one or two letter symbol that represents that element

elemental symbol

Which tells us the total number of neutrons and protons in that ______ so if we wanted to find out how many neutrons oxygen has we would do the mass number minus the atomic number

mass number

Study Notes

Atomic Structure

  • Atoms are made up of multiple smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • The basic structure of an atom consists of a central nucleus surrounded by electrons that orbit around it in rings called shells.

Nucleus

  • The nucleus is made up of two different types of particles: protons and neutrons.
  • Protons and neutrons have the same mass, with a relative mass of 1.
  • Protons have a positive charge of +1, while neutrons have no charge (neutral).

Electrons

  • Electrons have a much smaller mass, approximately 2,000 times smaller than protons and neutrons.
  • Electrons have a negative charge of -1.
  • Electrons orbit around the nucleus in shells.

Atom Size and Empty Space

  • The size of an atom depends on the element it is.
  • Atoms have a radius of around 0.1 nanometers.
  • Most of an atom is empty space, with the nucleus being very small (10,000 times smaller than the atom).

Atom Charge and Ions

  • Atoms can lose or gain electrons, resulting in an imbalance of charges.
  • When this happens, the atom becomes an ion.
  • A negative ion has more electrons than protons, while a positive ion has more protons than electrons.

Periodic Table and Elements

  • The periodic table is a table that displays different elements, each represented by a nucleus symbol.
  • Each nucleus symbol (element) has an atomic number, which indicates the number of protons in an atom of that element.
  • The atomic number determines which element an atom is.
  • The mass number in the nucleus symbol represents the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

Test your knowledge of atoms and their composition with this quiz. Explore the basic building blocks of all matter and delve into the fascinating world of atomic structure and elements. Discover the fundamental particles that make up atoms and their role in the composition of cells and living organisms.

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