electron structure and configuration of atoms and ions , Aufbau principle

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43 Questions

What happens to the size of the orbital as the principal quantum number (n) increases?

The size increases

What effect does an increase in shielding have on the energy of electrons in an orbital?

Stabilizes them less

Which type of subshell has the most penetrating electrons?

s

What does the notation 4s2 represent?

2 electrons in an s subshell

How does an increase in the value of l within a shell affect electron penetration?

Decreases penetration

What is shielding as mentioned in the text?

Electrons closer to the nucleus repel those farther out

What does the principal quantum shell number (n) indicate in an electron configuration?

Energy level of the orbital

How does an increase in energy due to n compare to an increase due to l for small orbitals?

Increase due to n is more significant

What determines many of the chemical properties of an atom?

The arrangement of electrons in orbitals

In the order of increasing energy, which atomic orbitals are arranged correctly?

$1s < 2s < 2p < 3s$

Why does the energy of atomic orbitals increase within a shell in the order s < p < d < f?

Due to the increasing value of the azimuthal quantum number (l)

Which orbital has electrons with the lowest energy according to Figure 6.24?

$1s$

Why is it confusing for many students that the 5p orbitals fill immediately after the 4d and before the 6s orbitals?

Because of the overlapping energies of atomic orbitals

Which quantum number has more influence on energy than the increasing azimuthal quantum number for small atoms?

$n$

What is the correct order for filling orbitals based on their increasing energy?

$1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s$

Why do electrons in orbitals that experience more shielding have higher energy levels?

As a result of less stabilization caused by shielding

What is the main reason behind the slight repulsion between electrons that are closer to the nucleus and those farther out?

Opposite charges of electrons and nuclei

In which order do the following types of atomic orbitals have electrons with increasing energy levels?

$f < s < d < p$

How does the energy increase due to the principal quantum number (n) compare to the increase due to the azimuthal quantum number (l) for larger orbitals?

Both increases are comparable and cannot be simply predicted

Which factor contributes more significantly to determining the energy of electrons within small orbitals?

Principal quantum number, n

Why does the 3d orbital have higher energy than the 4s orbital in larger atoms?

The 3d orbital has more electron-electron repulsion than the 4s orbital.

How does the energy of orbitals change as we move up within a shell, from 1s to 3p?

The energy increases due to increasing n value.

Which statement best explains why the filling order of the orbitals can be confusing for students?

The energy difference between orbitals with different values of l is not consistent.

What characteristic of atomic orbitals determines their energies within a shell?

Principal quantum number (n)

How do low-energy orbitals get filled as electrons move along the periodic table?

Electrons preferentially fill low-energy orbitals first before moving to higher-energy ones.

What causes the electron to shift from the 4s to the 3d orbital in Cr and Cu?

The stability of a half-filled 3d subshell (in Cr) or a filled 3d subshell (in Cu)

What is the electron configuration of niobium (Nb, atomic number 41) as observed experimentally?

[Kr]5s14d4

Why are valence electrons more easily lost or shared compared to core electrons?

Valence electrons have higher energy levels

What determines the chemical properties of elements in the same group?

Valence electron configuration

In which category do main group elements fall based on their outermost orbital characteristics?

Representative elements

Why do elements in the same group exhibit similar chemical properties?

They possess the same number of valence electrons

What role do valence electrons play in chemical reactions?

Influencing reactivity and bonding behavior

Why is it challenging to predict exceptions for atoms with high electron repulsions?

Repulsions are greater than energy differences between subshells

'Main group' elements are characterized by adding electrons to which orbitals?

(n-1)s or (n-1)p orbitals

What is the main factor that leads to the electron shifting from the 4s to the 3d orbital in Cr and Cu?

Half-filled 3d subshell

Why does niobium (Nb) exhibit an electron configuration different from its predicted configuration?

Electron–electron repulsions in the 5s orbital

What determines how elements react chemically?

Number of valence electrons

Why do elements in the same group exhibit similar chemical properties?

They have the same number of valence electrons

What role do valence electrons play in chemical reactions?

Defining how elements react

What feature places main group elements into their respective category?

Last electron added entering an s or p orbital

Which category includes all nonmetallic elements?

'Main group' elements

Why are valence electrons more easily lost or shared compared to core electrons?

Higher energy level

How would you differentiate 'transition' elements from 'main group' elements based on their outermost electron addition?

'Transition' elements add to d orbitals, 'main group' add to s or p orbitals

Test your knowledge on how atomic orbitals relate to one another based on quantum numbers. Understand how electron arrangement affects chemical properties. Explore the energy levels of orbitals in relation to the principal quantum number.

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