## Questions and Answers

Calculate the mass of Pluto's atmosphere, given the atmospheric pressure is 105 Pa, the area is 5 x 10^14 m^2, and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s^2.

The mass of Pluto's atmosphere is calculated using the equation $Mass = Pressure \times Area / Acceleration = P \times 4\pi R^2 / g = (105 Pa) \times (5 \times 10^{14} m^2) / (9.8 m/s^{-2}) = 5.2 \times 10^{18} Kg$.

Calculate the temperature of the atmosphere in kelvin (K) at an altitude of 50 km, given the sea level pressure (Po) is 1.013 × 10^5 Pa, the pressure (P) is 100 Pa, the molar mass (M) is 28.4 amu, the acceleration due to gravity (g) is 9.8 m/s^2, and the ideal gas constant (R) is 8.314 J K^{-1} mol^{-1}.

The temperature of the atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is calculated using the equation $P = P_0 \exp(-Mgh / RT)$. Given Po = 1.013 × 10^5 Pa, P=100 Pa, M=28.4 amu, g=9.8 m s^{-2}, h = 50 km, and R=8.314 J K^{-1} mol^{-1$.

Calculate the wavelength (λ) of a photon with enough energy to dissociate O2, given the bond dissociation energy of O2 is 495 kJ/mol.

The wavelength of a photon with enough energy to dissociate O2 is calculated using the equation $C = \lambda \nu$. The wavelength, λ, of the photon required for dissociating O2 is given by the bond dissociation energy of O2, which is 495 kJ/mol.

Explain the two processes through which free radicals are produced in the atmosphere.

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What is the concentration of the mentioned radicals in the atmosphere?

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## Study Notes

### Calculating the Mass of Pluto's Atmosphere

- Atmospheric pressure on Pluto is 105 Pa.
- Area encompassing the atmosphere is 5 x 10^14 m².
- Acceleration due to gravity on Pluto is 9.8 m/s².
- The mass can be calculated using the formula: Mass = Pressure x Area / Gravity.

### Temperature of the Atmosphere at Altitude of 50 km

- Sea level pressure (Po) is 1.013 × 10^5 Pa.
- Pressure at 50 km altitude (P) is 100 Pa.
- Molar mass of the atmosphere (M) is 28.4 amu (atomic mass unit).
- Gravitational acceleration (g) is 9.8 m/s².
- Ideal gas constant (R) is 8.314 J K⁻¹ mol⁻¹.
- Use the barometric formula to find temperature (T) at 50 km.

### Wavelength of Photon to Dissociate O2

- Energy required to dissociate O2 is 495 kJ/mol.
- The relationship between energy (E) and wavelength (λ) is given by E = (hc)/λ where h is Planck's constant and c is the speed of light.
- Calculate wavelength (λ) using the dissociation energy of O2.

### Production of Free Radicals in the Atmosphere

- Free radicals are produced through two main processes:
- Photodissociation: UV radiation splits molecules, creating free radicals.
- Chemical reactions: Reactions between existing chemicals can generate free radicals as intermediates.

### Concentration of Free Radicals in the Atmosphere

- Concentration of radicals varies depending on environmental conditions and presence of precursor species.
- Specific concentrations are not stated, but depend on altitude, solar radiation levels, and chemical compositions in the atmosphere.

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## Description

Test your knowledge of environmental chemistry and atmospheric layers with this quiz. Explore Pluto's atmosphere, atmospheric mass, pressure calculation, and the chemistry of air pollution.