Artificial Intelligence and Programming Languages

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24 Questions

What is the primary function of a knowledge inference engine in Expert Systems?

To explain the problem and provide solutions

Which of the following programming languages is NOT a symbolic language?

C

What is the purpose of Expert System Shells?

To provide a set of building blocks for programmers

What is the primary focus of the broad perspective of Knowledge Engineering?

The entire process of developing and maintaining intelligent systems

What type of knowledge is difficult to handle and express in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas?

Tacit knowledge

What is the goal of effective knowledge management?

To implement a continuous knowledge conversion process

What is the primary focus of the narrow perspective of Knowledge Engineering?

Knowledge acquisition, representation, validation, and inferencing

What is the purpose of Development Environments in Expert Systems?

To provide a set of building blocks for programmers

What is the primary function of a Monitoring expert system?

To compare data from a continually observed system to prescribe behavior

What type of expert system uses a set of rules to reason about a problem?

Rule-based Expert Systems

What is the primary function of a Scheduling and Planning expert system?

To develop or modify a plan of action

What type of expert system is used in product recommendation systems?

Fuzzy Logic Expert Systems

What is the primary function of a Diagnosis System?

To infer malfunction or disease from observable data

What type of expert system uses a knowledge base that contains facts and rules about a specific domain?

Knowledge-based Expert Systems

What is the primary function of a Design expert system?

To configure a system according to specifications

Which of the following is an example of a Diagnosis System?

CADUCEUS

What is the primary goal of the knowledge acquisition process?

To identify problem characteristics and represent knowledge

What is the term used to describe the process of considering an abstract concept to be real?

Reification

What is the purpose of the testing stage in the knowledge acquisition process?

To validate the rules that organize the knowledge

What is the ISA hierarchy used for?

To link a class and its superclass

What is the primary purpose of V&V techniques in knowledge base development systems?

To judge the success of a knowledge base development system

What is the result of the conceptualization stage in the knowledge acquisition process?

Finds concepts to represent the knowledge

What is an example of reification in the context of representing relationships?

Representing a generic 'give' event as a relation involving three things

What is the primary goal of the formalization stage in the knowledge acquisition process?

To design the structure to organize the knowledge

Study Notes

Expert Systems

  • Designed to mimic human expert problem-solving capabilities
  • Use a knowledge inference engine to provide solutions and explain problems

Types of Expert Systems

  • Neural Networks Expert Systems: learn from data by adjusting weights between neurons; used in speech recognition, image classification, and natural language processing
  • Rule-based Expert Systems: use a set of rules to reason about a problem and provide solutions or recommendations
  • Fuzzy Logic Expert Systems: use fuzzy logic to handle uncertainty and imprecision in data; used in product recommendation systems and image recognition
  • Knowledge-based Expert Systems: use a knowledge base containing facts and rules about a specific domain

Knowledge Acquisition

  • Involves five stages:
    • Identification: identifies problem characteristics
    • Conceptualization: finds concepts to represent the knowledge
    • Formalization: designs the structure to organize the knowledge
    • Implementation: formulates rules and frames to represent the knowledge
    • Testing: validates the rules that organize the knowledge

Knowledge Representation

  • Non-binary relationships can be represented by "reification" (considering an abstract concept to be real)
  • ISA (is a) or AKO (a kind of) relation is used to link a class and its superclass, and sometimes to link an instance and its class

Expert System Applications

  • Classification: identify an object based on stated characteristics
  • Diagnosis Systems: infer malfunction or disease from observable data
  • Monitoring: compare data from a continually observed system to prescribe behavior
  • Design: configure a system according to specifications
  • Scheduling & Planning: develop or modify a plan of action
  • Generation of Options: generate alternative solutions to a problem
  • Interpretation: infer situation descriptions from sensor data
  • Prediction: infer likely consequences of given situations
  • Debugging: provide incremental solutions for complex problems
  • Repair: execute a plan to administer a prescribed remedy
  • Control: repair, and monitor system behaviors

Knowledge Validation & Verification

  • V&V techniques offer the only way to judge the success of a knowledge base development system

This quiz covers types of artificial intelligence systems, including expert systems and neural networks, as well as programming languages used in AI applications.

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