Artificial Immunity and Vaccination Quiz 18.5

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200 Questions

Which type of immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen?

Natural active immunity

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual

What is the foundation for vaccination?

Artificial active immunity

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen?

Natural active immunity

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual

What is the foundation for vaccination?

Artificial active immunity

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity is triggered by vaccination?

Artificial immunity

What is the basis for artificial active immunity?

Exposure to weakened or inactivated pathogens

What is natural passive immunity?

Transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Post-exposure prophylaxis

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals

What is variolation?

Deliberate inoculation with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What is the difference between live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines?

Live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to a weakened strain of a pathogen, while inactivated vaccines contain whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated

What is the difference between subunit vaccines and toxoid vaccines?

Subunit vaccines contain only key antigens of a pathogen, while toxoid vaccines contain inactivated bacterial toxins

What are conjugate vaccines?

Vaccines consisting of a protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity can be acquired both naturally and artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is artificial immunity?

Immunity developed after vaccination

What is natural passive immunity?

Immunity transferred from a mother to her child

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Treating an active infection

What is the foundation for vaccination?

Adaptive immunity

What is herd immunity?

Protection for even those who are susceptible

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

Key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

Which type of immunity is achieved through vaccination?

Artificial active immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Both post-exposure prophylaxis and treating an active infection

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals

What did variolation involve?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity can be acquired either naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Both post-exposure prophylaxis and treating an active infection

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What was variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity can be acquired either naturally or artificially?

Active immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth

What is the foundation for vaccination?

Artificial active immunity

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Post-exposure prophylaxis or for treating an active infection

What is artificial active immunity?

Activation of adaptive immunity through deliberate exposure to weakened or inactivated pathogens or key pathogen antigens

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What was variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

Which type of immunity can be acquired either naturally or artificially?

Active immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual

What is the foundation for vaccination?

Artificial active immunity

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

One that causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

What is artificial immunity?

Immunity acquired through vaccination

What is the difference between natural active immunity and natural passive immunity?

Natural active immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen, while natural passive immunity involves the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Treating an active infection

What is artificial active immunity?

Immunity acquired through vaccination

What is herd immunity?

Protection for even those who are susceptible due to a population having very few susceptible individuals

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

Only the key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Has no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

What is the difference between natural active and natural passive immunity?

Natural active immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen, while natural passive immunity involves the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth.

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual, and is used for post-exposure prophylaxis or for treating an active infection.

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens or preparations consisting of key pathogen antigens.

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible.

What was variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims.

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox.

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen.

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

Key antigens of a pathogen.

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins.

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide.

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent.

Which type of immunity can be acquired naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before birth

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Post-exposure prophylaxis

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through deliberate exposure to pathogens

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals

What was variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

Key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

Causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity can be acquired either naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is the difference between natural active immunity and natural passive immunity?

Natural active immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen, while natural passive immunity involves the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth.

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual, used for post-exposure prophylaxis or for treating an active infection.

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens or preparations consisting of key pathogen antigens.

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible.

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims.

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox.

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen.

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen.

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins.

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide.

What is the ideal vaccine?

One that causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent.

What is adaptive immunity?

Immunity that is acquired either naturally or artificially

What is the difference between natural active immunity and natural passive immunity?

Natural active immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen, while natural passive immunity involves the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth.

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual, and is used for post-exposure prophylaxis or for treating an active infection.

What is artificial active immunity?

The deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens or preparations consisting of key pathogen antigens.

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible.

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims.

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox.

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen.

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen.

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins.

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide.

What is the ideal vaccine?

The vaccine that causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent.

Which type of immunity can be acquired naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Post-exposure prophylaxis

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to key pathogen antigens

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

People who were vaccinated with cowpox were immune to smallpox

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

A whole pathogen that has been killed or inactivated

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

Key antigens of a pathogen

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is the ideal vaccine?

One that causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent

Which type of immunity can be acquired naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is the difference between natural active immunity and natural passive immunity?

Natural active immunity develops after natural exposure to a pathogen, while natural passive immunity involves the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth.

What is artificial passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual, used for post-exposure prophylaxis or for treating an active infection.

What is artificial active immunity?

The foundation for vaccination and involves the activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens or preparations consisting of key pathogen antigens.

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible.

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims, practiced for centuries before Edward Jenner developed the modern process of vaccination.

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox.

What do live attenuated vaccines expose an individual to?

A weakened strain of a pathogen.

What do inactivated vaccines contain?

Whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

What do subunit vaccines only expose the patient to?

The key antigens of a pathogen.

What do toxoid vaccines contain?

Inactivated bacterial toxins.

What do conjugate vaccines consist of?

A protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide, developed to enhance the efficacy of subunit vaccines against pathogens with protective polysaccharide capsules.

What is the ideal vaccine?

The ideal vaccine causes no severe adverse effects and poses no risk of contracting the disease it is intended to prevent.

Which type of immunity can be acquired naturally or artificially?

Adaptive immunity

What is the main purpose of vaccination?

To prevent future infection

What is natural passive immunity?

The transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child before and after birth

What is artificial passive immunity used for?

Post-exposure prophylaxis

What is the difference between live attenuated and inactivated vaccines?

Live attenuated vaccines contain whole pathogens that have been weakened, while inactivated vaccines contain whole pathogens that have been killed or inactivated

What are subunit vaccines?

Vaccines that only expose the patient to the key antigens of a pathogen

What are toxoid vaccines?

Vaccines that contain inactivated bacterial toxins

What is herd immunity?

When a population has very few susceptible individuals, which creates protection for even those who are susceptible

What is variolation?

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with infectious material from smallpox victims

What did Edward Jenner observe that led to the development of the first vaccine?

Milkmaids who developed cowpox were immune to smallpox

What are conjugate vaccines?

Vaccines that consist of a protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide

What is artificial active immunity?

The activation of adaptive immunity through the deliberate exposure of an individual to weakened or inactivated pathogens or preparations consisting of key pathogen antigens

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