Artificial Heart Inventions Timeline

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10 Questions

Who is considered the father of dialysis?

Willem Kolff

In which year was the first working artificial heart, the Jarvik-7, successfully implanted in a human patient?

1982

Who invented the first patented artificial heart?

Paul Winchell

Which scientist is remembered for performing head transplants on dogs?

Vladimir Demikhov

When was the Liotta-Cooley artificial heart first implanted into a patient?

1969

What inspired Kolff to create a machine to perform the work of the kidneys?

Witnessing a young man die of kidney failure

What materials did Kolff use to create his first kidney machine?

Sausage skins, orange juice cans, and a washing machine

How many patients did Kolff successfully treat with his dialyzer before the breakthrough in 1945?

16

What happened to the 67-year-old woman after undergoing hemodialysis with Kolff's dialyzer?

Regained consciousness after 11 hours

How long did the 67-year-old woman live after regaining consciousness from the hemodialysis?

Seven more years

Study Notes

Development of Artificial Kidney and Heart

  • In the 1930s, Dr. Willem Kolff, a young Dutch physician, worked in a small ward at the University of Groningen Hospital in the Netherlands.
  • Kolff witnessed a young man's death from kidney failure, which motivated him to create a machine that could replace kidney function.
  • During World War II, Kolff was sent to a remote Dutch hospital, where he used available materials like sausage skins, orange juice cans, and a washing machine to create a device that could clear blood of toxins.
  • In 1943, Kolff completed his invention, a crude dialyzer that could perform hemodialysis.
  • Between 1943 and 1945, Kolff treated 16 patients with acute kidney failure, but with little success.
  • In 1945, a 67-year-old woman in uremic coma regained consciousness after 11 hours of hemodialysis with Kolff's dialyzer and lived for seven more years before dying of another ailment.
  • Dr. Willem Kolff is considered the father of dialysis.

Development of Artificial Heart

  • In 1937, Soviet scientist Vladimir Demikhov implanted an artificial heart into a dog.
  • In the 1950s, the first artificial heart for humans was invented and patented.
  • In 1982, the Jarvik-7, a working artificial heart, was successfully implanted in a human patient.
  • American Paul Winchell, a ventriloquist and comedian, invented the first patented artificial heart in the 1950s, but it was never used.
  • Henry Heimlich, who developed the eponymous emergency choking treatment, assisted Winchell in his endeavor.
  • The Liotta-Cooley artificial heart was implanted into a patient in 1969 as a temporary measure, but the patient died soon after.

Explore the timeline of artificial heart inventions, from the first patent in the 1950s to the successful implantation of the Jarvik-7 in 1982. Learn about early milestones like the first artificial heart implant in a dog by Soviet scientist Vladimir Demikhov in 1937.

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