Aquaculture and Fisheries Management Principles

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Why is it important to know the trophic level of fish in aquaculture and fisheries management?

To assess the fish's position in the food chain

How can water fertility be increased in aquaculture systems?

Adding inorganic or organic fertilizers

What factors influence the ability to produce plants in aquaculture?

Solar radiation, temperature, oxygen, nutrient availability

Why is phytoplankton considered a crucial group of plants in aquatic animal production?

They provide essential nutrients to aquatic animals

What is the main reason Aquaculture is considered the only viable alternative for increasing fish production in Nigeria?

Availability of advanced technology for fish production

What is a benefit of culturing a combination of different species with varying food habits in aquaculture?

Creates a more stable ecosystem

What is one of the major problems highlighted in the aquaculture sector in Nigeria related to fish seed quality?

Lack of functional fish hatcheries

Why is there high competition for principal feed ingredients like fish meal used in aquaculture?

Expensive nature of fish meal

What is one significant challenge faced by many fish farmers in Nigeria?

Adequate access to capital for profitable farm operation

Why is the lack of environmental impact consideration a problem in Aquaculture in Nigeria?

Environmental sustainability is crucial but overlooked

Study Notes

Basic Principles of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management

  • Aquatic animals depend directly or indirectly on plants for food, making it crucial to know the trophic level of the fish.
  • Plant production is dependent on factors like solar radiation, temperature, oxygen, and nutrient availability.
  • Natural fertility of water is closely tied to the fertility of its associated soil and its sources.
  • Soils contain basic nutrients that aid vegetative production.
  • Water fertility can be increased by adding inorganic or organic fertilizers.
  • Phytoplankton is the primary and principal food production group of plants for organic aquatic animal production in oceans, lakes, and ponds.
  • The carrying capacity per unit area differs for different species of fish depending on the trophic level of the species.
  • The greatest weight of any one species can be raised and produced in ponds by culturing only that species.
  • The greatest weight per area of the species is obtained by culturing a combination of different species that differ in food and feeding habits.

Prospects of Aquaculture in Nigeria

  • Nigeria has a high demand for fish, estimated at 1.06 million metric tonnes in 2007, but a supply of only 0.81 million metric tonnes, leaving a deficit of 0.25 million metric tonnes.
  • The decrease in fish landing due to overpopulation indicates that fish stocks have approached or even exceeded maximum sustainable yield.
  • Aquaculture remains the only viable alternative for increasing fish production to meet the protein needs of the population.
  • Nigeria has an advantage of having land suitable for both freshwater, brackish, and marine fish species.
  • There is a ready and stable market for fish in Nigeria.

Problems of Aquaculture in Nigeria

  • Poor quality fish seed due to a lack of functional fish hatcheries and fish seed from poor genetic quality.
  • High cost of fish feed, particularly fish meal, which is expensive and competed for by livestock farmers.
  • Poaching, or theft, is a significant problem.
  • Many fish farmers lack adequate capital to operate their farms profitably or expand them.
  • Unstable government and defective government policies hinder the development of aquaculture.
  • Faulty data collection and lack of adequate record keeping of aquaculture production in Nigeria.
  • Lack of environmental impact consideration is a significant challenge.
  • Marketing of aquaculture products is a major issue.

Understand the basic principles influencing the practice of aquaculture and fisheries management, including the dependence of aquatic animals on plants, the factors affecting plant production, and the role of soil fertility in water fertility.

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