Dr. Toffolo Comprehensive Review

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50 Questions

What is the purpose of Chain of Custody in forensic analysis?

To track the movement of evidence from person to person or location to person

Which technique utilizes a light source to visualize bodily fluids at a crime scene?

ALS

What is the most reliable confirmatory test for semen?

Histological staining and light microscopy

Why are accredited laboratories required to maintain a chain of custody?

To track the movement of all items in their possession

What happens if evidence lacks a proper chain of custody?

The evidence will be thrown out

What is the purpose of the Nuclear Fast Red stain in the staining solution?

To stain DNA-containing heads bright crimson

Which test should be conducted if the Acid Phosphate test has negative results but the sample was presumptively positive for semen?

Test for the presence of p30 or PSA

How are ions separated in a mass spectrometer based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z)?

By their m/e ratio

What is the purpose of TLC in forensic drug testing?

To determine the chemical group of a drug

Why are calibrators and controls used in mass spectrometry?

To quantify the analyte present

What is the purpose of a confirmatory test after a presumptive test like TLC?

To provide additional confirmation of the results

During which step of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process does the DNA go from double stranded to single stranded?

Denaturation

What is the role of Taq Polymerase in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process?

Extending the target sequence from primers

Which components are typically used to make glass?

Sand, limestone, and sodium carbonate

What does rifling refer to in the context of a firearm's barrel?

The areas cut into the barrel

What is the main principle behind Infrared Spectrometry for compound identification?

The unique way compounds react to infrared light due to their structure and chemical bonds.

What do compounds in a sample do when exposed to Infrared light?

Vibrate at different frequencies and absorb IR light at specific vibrational frequencies.

What is the purpose of an SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) in an organization?

To explain the routine behind an activity done by an organization.

What is the difference between direct and indirect microcrystal tests?

Direct tests interact with the compound and produce crystals, while indirect tests determine compound presence without interacting directly.

What is the main outcome of IR spectra plotted during Infrared Spectrometry?

A series of detailed peaks and troughs for molecule structure comparison.

FTIR is used for confirmatory drug analysis.

True

Direct microcrystal tests directly interact with compounds to produce crystals.

True

Indirect microcrystal tests determine compound presence without direct interaction with the compound.

True

An SOP typically includes a revision history.

True

Infrared spectrometry uses ultraviolet light to detect compounds in a sample.

False

The structure of a compound has no impact on how it reacts to infrared light.

False

In FTIR, specific light frequencies are absorbed by molecules due to their structure.

True

Components of an SOP always include equipment and reagents.

False

Direct microcrystal tests are used as negative tests to determine compound presence.

False

Indirect microcrystal tests only interact with the drug-derivative compound, not the original compound.

False

What is the principle behind Infrared Spectrometry for compound identification?

The principle is that different parts of the drug molecule absorb specific light frequencies, producing peaks and troughs on an IR spectrum.

What are the components typically found in a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)?

Components of an SOP include title, authors, issue and revision dates, SOP identification number, approval signatures, scope, procedures, quality control, safety, and more.

Explain the difference between direct and indirect microcrystal tests.

Direct tests interact directly with compounds to produce crystals, while indirect tests infer compound presence without direct interaction by other means.

What is the purpose of a confirmatory test after a presumptive test like TLC?

The purpose is to conclusively confirm the presence of a specific substance detected in the presumptive test.

Why are calibrators and controls used in mass spectrometry?

Calibrators are used to ensure accurate measurement, while controls are used to validate the performance of the instrument.

What happens if evidence lacks a proper chain of custody?

Lack of proper chain of custody can lead to evidence being inadmissible in court due to concerns about tampering or contamination.

What is the main outcome of IR spectra plotted during Infrared Spectrometry?

The main outcome is the arrangement and pattern of peaks on the IR spectra which can be compared to reference spectra for compound identification.

What is the role of Taq Polymerase in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process?

Taq Polymerase is used to amplify DNA by synthesizing new DNA strands from a DNA template during PCR.

What is the purpose of the Nuclear Fast Red stain in the staining solution?

Nuclear Fast Red stain is used to visualize the nuclei of cells in a staining solution, aiding in microscopic examination.

What is the difference between indirect and direct microcrystal tests?

Direct tests directly react with compounds to produce crystals, while indirect tests infer compound presence without direct interaction.

Match the following components of an SOP with their descriptions:

Title of SOP = Defines the purpose of the SOP Approval signatures = Sign-off from authorized personnel Procedures = Step-by-step instructions for conducting the activity Quality Control = Ensures adherence to set standards and accuracy

Match the following terms with their correct definitions related to Infrared Spectrometry:

Analyte = The substance being analyzed by spectrometry IR Spectra = Graphical representation of data showing absorption peaks FTIR = Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry technique Reference Spectra = Predefined spectra used for comparison and identification

Match the types of microcrystal tests with their corresponding characteristics:

Direct tests = Interact directly with the compound to produce crystals Indirect tests = Determine compound presence without direct interaction with the compound Negative test = Compound fails to produce a crystal indicating its presence Derivative test = Testing the drug-derivative compound, not the original compound

Match the following parts of an IR spectra with their meanings:

Peaks = Represent absorption of IR light at specific frequencies Troughs = Indicate regions where less IR light is absorbed Arrangement pattern = Unique arrangement showing compound's characteristic response Comparison to reference spectra = Used for identification based on peak similarities

Match the equipment/supplies typically found in an SOP with their purposes:

Equipment = Tools required to conduct the activity Reagents = Chemicals necessary for performing specific tests Sample collection = Procedure for proper collection, preservation, and handling of samples Scope = Defines the boundaries and extent of the SOP

Match the parts of a drug molecule that absorb IR light with their significance:

Different parts of drug molecule = Ability to absorb specific IR light frequencies Series of detailed peaks and troughs = Correspondent to molecule structure for comparison Light absorption frequency correlation = Characteristic features indicating molecule structure Chart or spectrum plotting = Visual representation of absorption patterns for identification

Match the principles behind FTIR with their explanations:

Molecular excitation by IR light = Causing molecular changes affecting IR light absorption/transmission Composition identification basis = Unique peaks and patterns correlate to specific molecular structures Confirmatory drug analysis method = Utilizing specific light absorption frequencies for identification Detailed peaks and troughs in spectra = Represent characteristic responses based on molecular structures

Match the following SOP components with their purposes:

Referenced documents / definitions and terminology = Clarify specific terms and references used in the SOP. Monitoring & compliance = Ensuring adherence to regulations and standards during operations. Miscellaneous = Other relevant information not covered in specific sections. Reporting Results = Documenting and communicating findings from conducted procedures.

Match the following terms related to drug testing in an SOP with their roles:

Sample collection which includes preservation and handling = Procedure for collecting, preserving, and handling samples properly. Method Performance = Ensuring that methods used meet defined performance criteria. Safety = Guidelines and precautions to ensure safety during testing procedures. Revision History = Record of changes made over time to the SOP.

Match the descriptions of direct and indirect microcrystal tests with their corresponding types:

Direct tests are ones that directly react with the compound = Direct tests Indirect tests are ones that determine that the compound is there by not directly interacting with it = Indirect tests A type of negative test where failure to produce crystals indicates compound presence = Direct tests A test that focuses on drug-derivative compounds rather than the original compound = Indirect tests

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