# Algorithms and Problem Solving

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## 10 Questions

### What is the primary goal of dynamic programming?

To break down a problem into smaller subproblems and solve each only once

### What is the primary purpose of the HTTP protocol?

To transfer data over the internet

### What is the primary advantage of using recursion in algorithms?

To break down a problem into smaller subproblems

### What is the primary purpose of encapsulation in OOP?

To hide the implementation details of an object from the outside world

### What is the primary advantage of using Divide and Conquer algorithms?

To break down a problem into smaller subproblems and solve each recursively

### What is the primary purpose of inheritance in OOP?

To create a new class that inherits the attributes and methods of a parent class

### What is the primary difference between a LAN and a WAN?

A LAN connects devices in a limited geographical area, while a WAN connects devices over a larger geographical area

### What is the primary purpose of polishing in algorithm analysis?

To measure the execution time of an algorithm

## Study Notes

### Algorithms

• Definition: A set of instructions to solve a specific problem or perform a particular task
• Types:
• Recursion: A function calls itself until a base case is reached
• Dynamic Programming: Breaking down a problem into smaller subproblems and solving each only once
• Greedy Algorithm: Making the locally optimal choice at each step, hoping to find a global optimum
• Divide and Conquer: Breaking down a problem into smaller subproblems and solving each recursively
• Analysis:
• Time Complexity: Measuring the execution time of an algorithm (e.g., O(n), O(n^2), O(log n))
• Space Complexity: Measuring the memory usage of an algorithm (e.g., O(n), O(n^2), O(log n))

### Data Structures

• Definition: A way to organize and store data in a computer
• Types:
• Arrays: A collection of elements of the same data type stored in contiguous memory locations
• Linked Lists: A collection of elements, each pointing to the next element
• Stacks: A Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) data structure, where elements are added and removed from the top
• Queues: A First-In-First-Out (FIFO) data structure, where elements are added to the end and removed from the front
• Trees: A hierarchical data structure, where each node has a value and child nodes
• Graphs: A non-hierarchical data structure, where each node has a value and edges to other nodes

### Computer Networks

• Definition: A collection of interconnected devices that communicate with each other
• Types:
• LAN (Local Area Network): A network that connects devices in a limited geographical area
• WAN (Wide Area Network): A network that connects devices over a larger geographical area
• MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): A network that connects devices in a metropolitan area
• Protocols:
• TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): A set of protocols that govern communication over the internet
• HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): A protocol for transferring data over the internet
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A protocol for transferring files over the internet

### OOP (Object-Oriented Programming)

• Definition: A programming paradigm that organizes software design around objects and their interactions
• Key Concepts:
• Classes: Blueprints for creating objects
• Objects: Instances of classes, with their own attributes and methods
• Inheritance: A child class inherits the attributes and methods of a parent class
• Polymorphism: An object can take on multiple forms, depending on the context
• Encapsulation: Hiding the implementation details of an object from the outside world
• Abstraction: Focusing on essential features and hiding non-essential details

### Algorithms

• An algorithm is a set of instructions to solve a specific problem or perform a particular task
• Algorithm types include:
• Recursion: a function calls itself until a base case is reached
• Dynamic Programming: breaking down a problem into smaller subproblems and solving each only once
• Greedy Algorithm: making the locally optimal choice at each step, hoping to find a global optimum
• Divide and Conquer: breaking down a problem into smaller subproblems and solving each recursively
• Algorithm analysis involves measuring:
• Time Complexity: execution time (e.g., O(n), O(n^2), O(log n))
• Space Complexity: memory usage (e.g., O(n), O(n^2), O(log n))

### Data Structures

• A data structure is a way to organize and store data in a computer
• Data structure types include:
• Arrays: a collection of elements of the same data type stored in contiguous memory locations
• Linked Lists: a collection of elements, each pointing to the next element
• Stacks: a Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) data structure, where elements are added and removed from the top
• Queues: a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) data structure, where elements are added to the end and removed from the front
• Trees: a hierarchical data structure, where each node has a value and child nodes
• Graphs: a non-hierarchical data structure, where each node has a value and edges to other nodes

### Computer Networks

• A computer network is a collection of interconnected devices that communicate with each other
• Network types include:
• LAN (Local Area Network): connects devices in a limited geographical area
• WAN (Wide Area Network): connects devices over a larger geographical area
• MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): connects devices in a metropolitan area
• Key network protocols include:
• TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): governs communication over the internet
• HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): for transferring data over the internet
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol): for transferring files over the internet

### OOP (Object-Oriented Programming)

• OOP is a programming paradigm that organizes software design around objects and their interactions
• Key OOP concepts include:
• Classes: blueprints for creating objects
• Objects: instances of classes, with their own attributes and methods
• Inheritance: a child class inherits the attributes and methods of a parent class
• Polymorphism: an object can take on multiple forms, depending on the context
• Encapsulation: hiding the implementation details of an object from the outside world
• Abstraction: focusing on essential features and hiding non-essential details

Learn about different types of algorithms, including recursion, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, and divide and conquer, to solve specific problems and perform tasks.

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