Appetite Chapter 11

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Why were there fewer disciplinary problems among U.S. Army troops stationed in Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War?

The troops in Saudi Arabia followed the law that prohibited alcohol consumption.

What is a major cause of premature deaths in Russia?

Excessive alcohol consumption

When did wine and beer originate?

8,000 years ago

Approximately what percentage of American adults have consumed alcohol in the past year?

71%

What is the percentage of college students who had engaged in binge drinking in the past two weeks?

44%

What is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States?

Alcohol consumption

What is the estimated cost of alcohol consumption to the United States per year?

$224 billion

Which group has the highest rate of alcohol abuse?

Native Americans and Alaska Natives

What is a challenge in evaluating the effects of drinking alcohol?

The person's expectations of the effects of alcohol

What design is used to tease apart the actual effects of alcohol and the effects of alcohol expectancies?

Balanced-placebo design

What does the behavior of type C participants in the balanced-placebo design show?

The effects of expectations

Which of the following statements is supported by the findings mentioned in the text?

People perform better when they have previous experience with a particular alcoholic beverage

What do the findings suggest about tolerance to the effects of alcohol?

People have less tolerance to the effects of alcohol when they have previous experience with any sort of alcohol

What is the main focus of the text?

The effects of previous experience with alcohol on performance

Which theory relates to the concept of self-control and suggests that drinking increases the tendency to choose immediate rewards?

Alcohol myopia

What part of the brain does alcohol inhibit, which is important for memory?

Hippocampus

How does alcohol consumption affect memory even under some conditions?

Just thinking you drank can impair your memory

What does the experiment conducted by psychologist Bob Remington and his colleagues suggest about tolerance to alcohol's effects?

Learning is partly responsible for developing tolerance

What is one example of what we've learned from experiments using the balanced-placebo design?

Alcohol expectancies are responsible for people becoming sexually aroused more easily after drinking

What happens to the body's physiology after drinking alcohol?

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver into acetaldehyde and eventually into carbon dioxide and water

What are some direct physiological effects of alcohol?

In low doses, alcohol acts as a stimulant, but in high doses, it acts as a depressant

What did the experiment conducted by Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga and Christianne R. T. Verwegen suggest about alcohol consumption and eating?

Participants ate more, faster, and longer when given a wine or beer aperitif

What is one possible explanation for the development of tolerance to a specific drug?

The body's compensatory, opposite physiological reactions

What are the long-term effects of consuming several drinks each day?

Increased cardiovascular risk and damage to the heart

Why do heroin addicts sometimes overdose when they take their usual doses of heroin in unfamiliar surroundings?

The opposite physiological reactions are not as large in unfamiliar surroundings

Which of the following is an example of how advertising can influence drinking behavior?

Seeing beer cans with school colors

What is the reason behind rats learning to prefer flavors associated with low concentrations of alcohol?

The association of taste with calories

What does the text suggest about the initial preference for the taste of bourbon?

People initially dislike the taste of bourbon

What are some potential effects of long-term alcohol consumption on cognitive abilities?

Decreased brain density and damage

Why do some people not experience weight gain when consuming large amounts of alcohol?

Alcohol releases excess energy in the metabolism

What is a potential consequence of cirrhosis of the liver in alcoholics?

Decreased nutrition absorption

What are some potential effects of long-term excess alcohol consumption on memory?

Adverse and permanent effects on memory

Which of the following personality traits is associated with alcoholism?

Impulsiveness

What factors may contribute to alcoholism besides genetics?

Environment

What effect does being with someone who drinks heavily have on an individual's drinking?

It increases their drinking

What did the experiment conducted by Donnie W. Watson and Mark B. Sobell show?

People are more likely to drink more when they are with others

Which of the following is true about the genetic contributions to alcoholism?

Many different genes contribute to the likelihood of someone abusing alcohol.

What is one example of a genetically determined trait that influences alcohol consumption?

Being a supertaster for bitter flavors.

What does the research mentioned in the text suggest about the relationship between age and sensitivity to the rewarding effects of alcohol?

Adolescents are more sensitive to the rewarding effects of alcohol compared to older people.

What have studies examining people with and without alcoholic relatives shown about the physiological traits or genes related to alcoholism?

There are physiological traits that tend to be present in people with alcoholic relatives but not in those without.

Which of the following is a potential reason for the higher acetaldehyde levels in participants with alcoholic relatives compared to participants with nonalcoholic relatives?

The participants with alcoholic relatives metabolized alcohol differently

What did the research conducted by Schuckit and Rayses reveal about the motor performance of sons of alcoholics compared to sons of nonalcoholics at age 20?

Sons of alcoholics had similar motor performance

What brain wave deficiency has been observed in men and boys with alcoholic relatives during some visual tasks?

P3 evoked potential deficiency

What do studies on twins and adoptees suggest about the role of genes in alcoholism?

Identical twins are more likely to be alcoholic than fraternal twins

According to the stress-relief theory mentioned in the text, why do some people drink more?

Because alcohol relieves negative symptoms

In the anecdote mentioned in the text, why did the author's father suggest having a drink?

To relieve stress

Based on the text, what is one possible explanation for the inconsistent findings in laboratory investigations regarding the effects of drinking on stress relief?

Drinking relieves stress in uncertain threat situations

Which type of treatment approach did Miller and his colleagues find some support for in their study?

Relapse prevention

What is a potential concern with using injected chemicals or mechanical methods to induce nausea in aversion therapy?

They can be dangerous

What is the extreme physical reaction that can occur when someone has taken Antabuse and then drinks alcohol?

All of the above

What did the experiment conducted by psychologists Reid K. Hester and Harold D. Delaney provide behavioral self-control training through?

Computer

Which treatment did Miller and his colleagues find to be the most effective?

Brief intervention

What is the goal of brief interventions?

To help clients drink responsibly

Which treatment is based on the principles of taste aversion learning?

Aversion therapy using nausea

What is a potential challenge in using certain treatments with seriously debilitated alcoholics?

Cognitive limitations of the alcoholics

Which of the following is a potential reason for excessive drinking according to the text?

Inability to satisfy various motivations or drives

What does the text suggest about the relationship between alcohol availability and drinking behavior?

Alcohol availability is correlated with drinking behavior, but the relationship is complex

What conclusion can be drawn from the information in the text about the causes of alcoholism?

Different cases of alcoholism have different causes

What is one potential consequence of cirrhosis of the liver in alcoholics?

Liver damage

According to the text, what is the most important factor for the success of an alcoholism treatment?

The type of treatment used

What is the goal of alcoholism treatment according to those who view alcoholism as a disease?

Complete abstinence

What client characteristics are associated with relatively more success in achieving controlled drinking as a treatment goal?

Showing few symptoms of alcohol dependence

What does the text suggest about the severity of relapses in clients with a goal of abstinence compared to clients with a goal of controlled drinking?

Relapses tend to be more severe in clients with a goal of abstinence

What is the goal of the treatment for the participants in the study mentioned in the text?

Moderate, nonproblematic drinking

Which treatment approach showed no positive effects in the study conducted by Miller and his colleagues?

Participation in AA

What is the first step in the 12-step approach advocated by AA?

Admitting powerlessness over alcohol

What did the experiment conducted by Barbara S. McCrady and her colleagues reveal about the effectiveness of AA participation?

AA participation had no effect on excessive drinking

What were the three types of treatment used in Project MATCH?

Cognitive-behavioral coping skills therapy, motivational enhancement therapy, and 12-step facilitation therapy

How long did each treatment in Project MATCH last?

12 weeks

Why weren't the clients in Project MATCH representative of most people who need treatment for alcohol abuse?

They had concurrent problems with other drugs

Which of the following is a factor that contributes to the continuation of drinking and its associated problems, despite the economic and health costs?

Humorous alcohol ads

What is one reason why decreasing drinking is challenging, despite the huge economic and health costs of alcohol abuse?

Positive promotion of moderate drinking's effects on heart disease

What is the author's hope for books like the one mentioned in the text?

To provide accurate information about alcohol abuse

Which of the following drugs work by making the body less responsive to the positive effects of alcohol?

Both A and C

What percentage of college students under the age of 21 had consumed alcohol in the past year, according to a recent survey?

62%

What is the goal of brief outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse, according to the text?

To assess the problem and provide advice on how to control drinking

What is the potential consequence of cirrhosis of the liver in alcoholics?

Liver failure

What is one strategy suggested in the text for decreasing college student drinking?

Decreasing drinking opportunities at local bars

What is one method mentioned in the text that college students use to ingest large amounts of alcohol?

Playing the game 21 for 21

What is one potential consequence of cirrhosis of the liver in alcoholics?

Liver cancer

What does the text suggest about the alcohol lobby?

It frequently hosts fundraisers for political candidates

Can You Spot the Fake Drink? Test your knowledge on distinguishing between alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages with this quiz. Challenge yourself to identify the real deal and discover how experimenters can deceive participants.

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