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Neurotransmitter 3-4

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31 Questions

At which junction is acetylcholine released by motor neurons to activate muscles?

Neuromuscular junction

Which system is primarily regulated by acetylcholine outside the brain?

Parasympathetic nervous system

In Alzheimer's disease, which neurotransmitter is decreased?

Acetylcholine

Blocking acetylcholine in the basal forebrain cholinergic system affects which cognitive process?

Learning

In which two brain regions does the basal forebrain cholinergic system innervate?

Cortex and hippocampus

What is the name of the space between the synaptic knob and the muscle cell?

Synaptic cleft

What is the neurotransmitter involved in skeletal muscle contraction?

Acetylcholine

What triggers the action potential in the muscle cells?

Binding of acetylcholine to receptors

What happens when the muscle relaxes?

The cross-bridges between actin and myosin filaments break

What is the autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction?

Myasthenia gravis

What is the current drug of choice for treating Myasthenia Gravis?

Pyridostigmine

What is the cause of muscle tone loss, muscle weakness, and fatigue in Myasthenia Gravis?

Autoantibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor

What is the bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum?

Clostridium botulinum

What is the type of botulism that occurs when someone eats food containing the toxins?

Food-borne botulism

What is the age range of children who can develop defense against Clostridium botulinum spores?

From 1 year to 5 years

What is the primary function of dopamine in the brain?

Controlling motivation and pleasure

What is a common effect of cocaine on the user?

Increased feelings of anxiety and paranoia

Which of the following nicotine replacement therapy options releases nicotine slowly?

Skin patches

What is the primary effect of cocaine on dopamine levels?

Artificially boosts dopamine levels

What is the primary role of serotonin in the brain?

Regulating relaxation and contentment

What is a potential physical effect of cocaine use?

Muscle twitches

Which type of botulinum toxin is the most potent?

Type A

What is the function of the light chain of the botulin toxin?

It interacts with the SNARE protein complex

What is the duration of the clinical effects of botulinum toxin?

3-4 months

What is the primary mechanism of action of botulinum toxin?

Blocking the release of acetylcholine from axon endings

What is the main use of botulinum toxin in clinical practice?

Treating disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement

What is the name of the licensed type-A toxin used to treat focal spasticity in the arm and leg?

All of the above

What is the purpose of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)?

To provide a low level of nicotine to reduce withdrawal symptoms

What is the effect of botulinum toxin on the SNARE protein complex?

It prevents the fusion of acetylcholine vesicles with the cell membrane

What is the target of the botulinum toxin in the nervous system?

The presynaptic surface of cholinergic neurons

What is the function of the SNARE proteins in neurotransmitter release?

To mediate the release of acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles

Learn about Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the neuromuscular junction, brain function, and cognitive processes like memory and learning. Understand its role in the basal forebrain cholinergic system and its effects on sleep and wakefulness.

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