# 8th Grade Physics Exam Study Guide

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## Study Notes

### Terms and Concepts

• Vector vs Scalar Quantity:
• Vector: has magnitude and direction
• Scalar: has only magnitude
• Motion:
• Frame of Reference: a fixed point from which motion is measured
• Distance vs Displacement:
• Distance: total length of path traveled
• Displacement: shortest distance between initial and final positions
• Speed vs Velocity:
• Speed: scalar quantity, rate of change of distance
• Velocity: vector quantity, rate of change of displacement
• Instantaneous Speed vs Average Speed:
• Instantaneous Speed: speed at a specific point in time
• Average Speed: total distance traveled divided by time
• Distance vs Time Graphs:
• Slope of the graph represents velocity
• Acceleration:
• Rate of change of velocity
• Can be calculated using the formula: a = Δv / Δt
• Velocity vs Time Graphs:
• Slope of the graph represents acceleration
• Force:
• Push or pull that causes an object to change its motion
• Newton's Laws of Motion:
• First Law: Inertia, an object at rest stays at rest, an object in motion stays in motion
• Second Law: F = ma, force is equal to mass times acceleration
• Third Law: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
• Work and Energy:
• Work: force applied over a distance
• Energy: ability to do work
• Machines:
• Simple Machines: lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, screw
• Compound Machines: combination of simple machines
• Momentum:
• Product of an object's mass and velocity
• Pressure:
• Force per unit area
• Bernoulli's Principle:
• Faster moving fluids have lower pressure, slower moving fluids have higher pressure
• Buoyancy and Buoyancy Force:
• Upward force exerted on an object by a fluid (liquid or gas)
• Archimedes' Principle: buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
• Friction:
• Force that opposes motion between two surfaces in contact
• Types: static, sliding, rolling, fluid

### Formulas

• Average Velocity or Speed:
• v_avg = Δx / Δt
• Average Acceleration:
• a_avg = Δv / Δt
• Acceleration:
• a = F / m (Newton's Second Law)
• Weight:
• W = mg (mass times acceleration due to gravity)
• Momentum:
• p = mv (mass times velocity)
• Pressure:
• P = F / A (force per unit area)
• Work:
• W = F × d (force times distance)
• Power:
• P = W / t (work divided by time)

### Review Questions

• Questions 1-44: various physics concepts and problems

Review key physics concepts for 8th grade science exam, including vector and scalar quantities, motion, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration, and graph interpretation.

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