Cognitive psychology

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76 Questions

What is the first step in the memory process?

Which model of memory system was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968?

What happens to information stored in the sensory store according to the text?

Which aspect of memory has a large capacity but a very limited duration?

What is the ability to access information at a later time called?

What is the capacity of short-term memory according to Miller (1956)?

Which type of coding seems to be important in short-term memory?

How long is the approximate duration of short-term memory?

Which case study supports the claim that short-term memory and long-term memory are separate stores?

What type of rehearsal is more likely to lead to long-term memory according to the limitations of the multi-store model?

What is the main emphasis of the Working Memory model compared to the Multi-store model of memory?

Which component of the phonological loop holds words for about 2 seconds and is known as the inner ear of the memory system?

In dual task performance, why is it more difficult to do two similar tasks at the same time?

What is the main function of the central executive in the Working Memory model?

What is a weakness of the Working Memory model according to the text?

Which theory suggests that memories may become 'mixed up' during retrieval, leading to the retrieval of the wrong memory?

What is the main idea behind Proactive Interference as discussed in the text?

According to the Encoding Specificity Principle, why are we more likely to recall information if we are in a similar situation at the time of retrieval?

In Barlett's study on reconstructive memory, what did he find about how participants recalled 'The War of the Ghosts' story?

In Wells, Liepe, and Ostrom's research on Eyewitness Testimony (EWT), what percentage of participants testified about the thief's identity in a mock trial and were believed by 80% of the jury?

What type of memory is associated with sensory-motor-coordination, such as swimming or riding a bike?

According to the multi-store model, what type of rehearsal is more likely to lead to information being transferred into long-term memory?

What is one of the limitations of the Levels of Processing model in explaining memory?

In Tulving's classification of long-term memory, which type of memory is explicitly conscious and can be verbalized?

How did H.M.'s case provide evidence regarding different types of memories?

Which factor makes eyewitness testimony less reliable according to the Yerkes-Dodson Law?

In the study by Loftus and Palmer (1974) on memory alteration, participants estimated a faster speed when asked about 'smashing' compared to 'hitting'. What was the conclusion drawn from this study?

What technique was found to produce the most accurate results in interviewing witnesses of violent crimes?

Which detail about eyewitness testimony is supported by research on reconstructive memory?

'Weapon Focus' refers to what tendency during an event involving a weapon?

What is the main function of the sensory stores in the memory process?

Which memory store has a very limited capacity and holds information that we are consciously aware of?

According to the multi-store model, what is the primary cause of information being lost from short-term memory?

Which process involves moving information between the sensory stores, short-term memory, and long-term memory in the multi-store model?

What characteristic distinguishes sensory stores from short-term memory in terms of duration?

In the context of the multi-store model, which store has a large capacity but can only hold information for a short time?

In the study by Loftus et al. (1987), participants who watched a video of a crime involving a gun were less able to later identify the robber. This is an example of:

What did Yuille and Cutshall (1986) find in their study involving eyewitnesses to a real crime that differed from laboratory experiments on eyewitness testimony?

What technique was found to produce the most accurate results in Geiselman et al.'s (1985) study involving participants who watched a video of a violent crime?

To improve eyewitness testimony, which of the following is NOT recommended during witness interviews based on the text?

Why do laboratory experiments on eyewitness testimony often face criticisms regarding ecological validity according to the text?

What is a key aspect of eyewitness testimony that makes it susceptible to being unreliable based on the text?

What concept does the Working Memory model emphasize compared to the Multi-store model of memory?

Which component of the Working Memory model focuses on processing visual and spatial information?

According to Baddeley and Hitch (1974), what happens to written words when they are stored in the phonological loop?

What is the 'Word-length effect' related to in the context of memory?

Which type of memory is associated with knowledge of facts and information like your birthday?

In the Working Memory model, which subsystem 'supervises' the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketch pad?

What did Tulving (1972) distinguish as types of long-term memory?

'Explicit memories' as mentioned in the text are associated with which type of long-term memory?

'Implicit memories' refer to what type of memory according to the text?

'Episodic memories' are connected to what specific aspect of an event according to Tulving (1972)?

Which type of rehearsal is more likely to lead to long-term memory according to the Levels of Processing model?

What did Goodwin et al. (1969) find in their study regarding internal/body state and memory recall?

Which type of memory was tested in the study by Godden and Baddely (1975) on environmental influences?

According to the Encoding Specificity Principle, why are we more likely to recall information?

What aspect of internal state influences memory recall according to the study by Goodwin et al. (1969)?

In which type of processing does elaborative rehearsal play a key role according to the Levels of Processing model?

What does the study by Craik and Tulving (1975) demonstrate regarding word processing?

'Encoding Specificity Principle' suggests better recall when:

Which type of coding is considered important in short-term memory based on the text?

In Conrad's (1964) study, more mistakes were made in recalling letters that sounded similar due to:

What happens to information stored in short-term memory after approximately 20 seconds?

The primary effect in the serial position effect refers to better recall of words:

Which type of rehearsal is more likely to lead to long-term memory according to the text?

What is one of the weaknesses attributed to the multi-store model of memory?

'H.M.' case supports the claim that brain damage may affect one memory store but not others, such as STM or LTM. Which part of H.M.'s brain was removed?

Which model suggests that working memory is different from short-term memory?

What does the recency effect in the serial position effect suggest about recall?

In the experiment by Wells, Liepe, and Ostrom (1979) on Eyewitness Testimony, what percentage of participants correctly identified the thief when shown photographs?

According to Barlett's study on reconstructive memory, what change was observed in how participants recalled 'The War of the Ghosts' story?

What did Loftus and Palmer (1974) conclude based on their experiments involving different wording of questions about traffic accidents?

In the context of Eyewitness Testimony (EWT), why may memory alterations occur during recall?

How does anxiety/stress impact the reliability of Eyewitness Testimony (EWT) according to the Yerkes-Dodson Law?

Which model of memory suggests that memories are influenced by existing knowledge, beliefs, and schemas?

According to the text, why may schemas sometimes lead to inaccurate memories?

Description

Explore the components of working memory such as the visual store and spatial store, as well as different types of long-term memory. Get insights into the Episodic Buffer and the limitations of the multi-store model in understanding short-term and long-term memory.

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