The Stress Test



9 Questions

What are the two major systems that respond to stress in humans and most mammals?

What are the two hormones produced during a stressful situation?

What is the fight-or-flight response activated through in response to stress?

What is brain atrophy?

What is the Holmes and Rahe stress scale used for?

What is Th2 immunity?

What is the general adaptation syndrome characterized by?

What are some coping mechanisms for dealing with psychological stress?

What did the American Psychological Association's 2015 Stress In America Study find about the leading sources of stress?


Organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus:

  • Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a threat, challenge or physical and psychological barrier.

  • Two hormones produced during a stressful situation are adrenaline and cortisol.

  • The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are the two major systems that respond to stress in humans and most mammals.

  • The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis.

  • Chronic stress causes brain atrophy, which is the loss of neurons and the connections between them, and affects learning, responding to stressors and cognitive flexibility.

  • Chronic stressors may not be as intense as acute stressors, but persist over longer periods of time and tend to have a more negative effect on health.

  • Chronic stress can include events such as caring for a spouse with dementia or may result from brief focal events that have long term effects.

  • Stress can alter memory functions, reward, immune function, metabolism and susceptibility to diseases.

  • Psychological stress remains a common risk factor for several mental illnesses.

  • Chronic stress can have lifelong effects on the biological, psychological and behavioral responses to stress later in life.

  • The Holmes and Rahe stress scale was developed as a method of assessing the risk of disease from life changes.

  • Chronic stress is a term sometimes used to differentiate it from acute stress, and may be along the lines of continual activation of the stress response, stress that causes an allostatic shift in bodily functions, or just as "prolonged stress".The Effects of Chronic Stress on Health

  • Chronic stress can have long-term detrimental effects on health, especially in older or unhealthy individuals.

  • Acute time-limited stressors result in an upregulation of natural immunity and downregulation of specific immunity.

  • Chronic stress leads to a shift towards Th2 immunity, decreased interleukin 2, T cell proliferation, and antibody response to the influenza vaccine.

  • Chronic stress increases the risk of upper respiratory tract infection, HIV progression, and reactivation of latent herpes viruses.

  • Chronic stress plays a role in hypertension and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, substance abuse, and chronic diseases associated with aging.

  • Chronic stress impairs developmental growth in children by lowering the production of growth hormone.

  • Chronic stress affects the parts of the brain where memories are processed and stored, leading to decline in memory and increased risk for stress-related disorders like PTSD.

  • Stress management techniques can equip a person with effective coping mechanisms for dealing with psychological stress.

  • Coping mechanisms may include controlling the source of stress, learning to set limits and say "no," and engaging in relaxing activities.

  • Social support from a loved one can help reduce stress and the response to stress in the brain.

  • Cognitive processes of appraisal are central in determining whether a situation is potentially threatening, constitutes harm/loss or a challenge, or is benign.

  • The general adaptation syndrome is characterized by three phases: a nonspecific mobilization phase, a resistance phase, and an exhaustion phase.The Rise of Stress and its Various Consequences

  • Stress is a response to an event or situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening.

  • The term "stress" was originally coined in the 1930s by Hans Selye, a Canadian endocrinologist.

  • Stress can range from mild irritation to severe problems that might result in a breakdown of health.

  • Society spent less attention to the actual danger and severity of mental health consequences of stress.

  • The consequences of being harsh to another individual verbally can be considered abuse and have costs that we all pay.

  • The American Psychological Association's 2015 Stress In America Study found that nationwide stress is on the rise.

  • The three leading sources of stress were "money", "family responsibility", and "work".

  • Stress can have physical and psychological effects on the body, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol levels.

  • Chronic stress can lead to a weakened immune system, cardiovascular disease, and mental health disorders.

  • Coping mechanisms for stress can include exercise, relaxation techniques, and social support.

  • Employers can implement stress management programs to improve employee well-being and productivity.

  • The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in stress and anxiety worldwide.


Test your knowledge on how organisms respond to stressors with our informative quiz. Learn about the two major systems that respond to stress, the hormones produced during a stressful situation, and the detrimental effects of chronic stress on health. Discover coping mechanisms for dealing with psychological stress and the rise of stress and its various consequences. This quiz covers everything you need to know about stress and its impact on the body and mind.

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