Test Your Knowledge on Health Equity and Disparities



9 Questions

What is health equity?

What is the definition of health disparities?

What is the impact of poor socioeconomic status on health?

What is the impact of education on healthcare utilization?

What are the impacts of spatial disparities in health?

What is the impact of discrimination on LGBT healthcare?

What are the impacts of sex and gender on health?

What is the impact of genetic counseling on healthcare outcomes?

What is the impact of minority populations' exposure to environmental hazards?


Health Equity: Causes of Differences in the Quality of Health and Health Care

  • Health equity is achieved through access to the social determinants of health, such as wealth, power, and prestige, and requires resources to be allocated based on a need-based principle.
  • The quality of health and its distribution among economic and social status reflects the level of development in a society, and health is a basic human right interconnected with all other basic human rights.
  • Health equity is defined as differences in health that are unavoidable, unfair, and unjust, and cannot be explained by natural causes or differences in choice, and is closely associated with the social justice movement.
  • Socioeconomic status is both a strong predictor of health and a key factor underlying health inequities across populations, and poor socioeconomic status can limit an individual or population's financial and social capital.
  • Education is an important factor in healthcare utilization, as it impacts an individual's knowledge of the value of proper treatment and their comprehension of health information and services, and education inequities are closely associated with health inequities.
  • Spatial disparities in health result in limited access to healthcare and health resources for some populations, particularly those living in rural areas with fewer healthcare professionals and resources.
  • Ethnic and racial disparities in access to adequate healthcare and insurance coverage exist in many countries, with evidence supporting the notion that these disparities continue to exist and are a significant social health issue.
  • Indigenous communities are disproportionately affected by health disparities as they adjust to western lifestyles and become more susceptible to developing certain chronic illnesses.
  • The legacy of apartheid in South Africa still manifests itself in differential access to social services, including healthcare, based on race and social class.
  • Systematic disregard of indigenous populations in a number of countries has resulted in poorer overall healthcare, and non-native populations may lack access to healthcare due to language barriers or limited translators.
  • Aborigines in Australia experience higher rates of mortality and poor healthcare outcomes compared to non-Aborigine populations, and indigenous populations in South America and India also experience greater mortality and poor healthcare outcomes.
  • Systemic health and social inequities have resulted in racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States being disproportionately affected by COVID-19.
  • Effective interventions, such as social interventions to enhance the social resources of a community, can improve healthcare and reduce health disparities.Health Disparities Summary:

Global Inequity in COVID-19 Vaccines

  • 130 countries have not yet given a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine
  • 87% of vaccines have been distributed to the wealthiest countries, while only 0.2% have been distributed to the poorest countries
  • One-quarter of the populations of wealthy countries have been vaccinated, while only 1 in 500 residents of poor countries have been vaccinated

LGBT Health Disparities

  • LGBT populations face health problems related to their sexuality and gender identity
  • Discrimination and barriers to care persist in China, India, and Chile
  • Inadequate research data exists about the effects of LGBT discrimination on morbidity and mortality rates
  • Discrimination from healthcare workers or institutions is a main form of healthcare discrimination
  • Lack of provider training and awareness of the population's healthcare needs is a barrier to treatment, particularly for transgender individuals
  • Transgender individuals face significant barriers to treatment and often face higher disease burden and mental health disparities

Sex and Gender in Healthcare Equity

  • Both sex and gender are significant factors that influence health

  • Males tend to have a health advantage over females in non-Western regions due to gender discrimination

  • The mortality rate is higher for adult men than for adult women in most regions of the world

  • Physicians tend to offer invasive procedures to male patients more often than to female patients

  • Women in developing nations experience greater mortality rates than men in developing nations

  • Women in developing countries have a much higher risk of maternal death than those in developed countries

  • Women in the United States tend to live longer than men but generally are of lower socioeconomic status and therefore have more barriers to accessing healthcare

  • Women's pain tends to be treated less seriously and initially ignored by clinicians when compared to their treatment of men's pain complaints

  • Cultural factors contribute to health disparities, such as the preference for male children in China and India and the practice of female genital mutilation in various regions

  • Minority populations have increased exposure to environmental hazards that result in a cycle of disease and stress, such as food deserts and lack of neighborhood resources.Reducing Disparities in Genetic Counseling Title

  • Genetic counseling is an important tool for identifying and managing genetic conditions.

  • Minority communities are often underrepresented in genetic research and have less access to genetic counseling.

  • Lack of access to genetic counseling can lead to disparities in healthcare outcomes.

  • A study found that African American women with breast cancer were less likely to receive genetic counseling than white women.

  • Another study found that Hispanic women were less likely to receive genetic counseling and testing for breast cancer.

  • The cost of genetic testing and counseling can be a barrier for many people, especially those without insurance.

  • Telemedicine has the potential to increase access to genetic counseling for those who live in remote or underserved areas.

  • It is important to include diverse populations in genetic research to ensure that genetic information is applicable to everyone.

  • The National Human Genome Research Institute has launched initiatives to increase diversity in genetic research and improve access to genetic counseling.

  • Improving access to genetic counseling and testing can help reduce healthcare disparities and improve health outcomes for all populations.

  • Education and outreach efforts can help increase awareness of the importance of genetic counseling and testing.

  • The use of culturally sensitive approaches and language services can help improve access to genetic counseling for non-English speaking populations.


Test your knowledge on health equity and disparities with these three quizzes. Learn about the causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare, the global inequity in COVID-19 vaccines, health disparities faced by the LGBT community, and more. Improve your understanding of the impact of socioeconomic status, education, race, ethnicity, sex, and gender on healthcare outcomes. Discover effective interventions to reduce healthcare disparities and improve health equity. Take the quizzes to test your knowledge and learn more about reducing disparities in genetic

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