Neuropsychology Quiz



9 Questions

What is neuropsychology?

What is the difference between experimental and clinical neuropsychology?

What is the difference between neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry?

What is the history of neuropsychology?

What did Aristotle believe about the brain?

Who coined the words 'hemisphere' and 'lobe' when referring to the brain?

What is functional localization in neuropsychology?

What is connectionism in neuropsychology?

What is functional neuroimaging in neuropsychology?


A Brief History of Neuropsychology

  • Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system relate to a person's cognition and behavior, and how injuries or illnesses of the brain affect cognitive and behavioral functions.

  • It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology, concerned with understanding how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain function and the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

  • Neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind through the study of neurological patients, and it shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general.

  • The first textbook defining the field of neuropsychology, Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, was initially published by Kolb and Whishaw in 1980, but the history of its development can be traced back to the Third Dynasty in ancient Egypt.

  • In ancient Egypt, writings on medicine date from the time of the priest Imhotep, who described the brain, trauma, abnormalities, and remedies for reference for future physicians. Egyptians saw the heart, not the brain, as the seat of the soul.

  • Aristotle believed the heart to be in control of mental processes, and looked on the brain, due to its inert nature, as a mechanism for cooling the heat generated by the heart.

  • Hippocrates viewed the brain as the seat of the soul and drew a connection between the brain and behaviors of the body, writing: "The brain exercises the greatest power in the man."

  • Philosopher René Descartes focused much of his anatomical experimentation on the brain, paying special attention to the pineal gland – which he argued was the actual "seat of the soul." He was convinced the mind had control over the behaviors of the body – but also that the body could have influence over the mind, which is referred to as dualism.

  • Thomas Willis coined the words 'hemisphere' and 'lobe' when referring to the brain. He was particularly interested in people with manic disorders and hysteria, and through his in-depth study of the brain and behavior, Willis concluded that automated responses such as breathing, heartbeats, and other various motor activities were carried out within the lower region of the brain.

  • Neuroanatomist and physiologist Franz Joseph Gall made major progress in understanding the brain. He invented phrenology, which looked at the brain as an organ of the mind, where the shape of the skull could ultimately determine one's intelligence and personality.

  • Carl Wernicke was an influential nineteenth-century neuropsychiatrist specifically interested in understanding how abnormalities could be localized to specific brain regions. Wernicke observed a patient presenting with poor language comprehension despite maintaining intact speech and hearing following a severe stroke. Post-morbid analysis revealed a lesion near the auditory region of the brain in the parietal-temporal region of the left hemisphere. Individuals with damage to this area present with fluent but receptive aphasia characterized by the inability to comprehend or express written or spoken language while maintaining intact speech and auditory processes.

  • Clinical neuropsychology is the application of neuropsychological knowledge to the assessment, management, and rehabilitation of people who have experienced illness or injury (particularly to the brain) which has caused neurocognitive problems. In particular, they bring a psychological viewpoint.Overview of Neuropsychology

  • Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system affect mental and behavioral functions, including perception, cognition, emotion, and personality.

  • Neuropsychologists use a combination of cognitive and behavioral tests, as well as brain imaging techniques, to assess and diagnose brain damage, neurological disorders, and mental health conditions.

  • Clinical neuropsychologists often work in hospital settings, while others work in private practice and may provide expert input into medico-legal proceedings.

  • Cognitive neuropsychology is a relatively new development that seeks to understand the mind and brain by studying people with brain injuries or neurological illnesses.

  • Functional localization is a model of neuropsychological functioning that suggests that if a specific cognitive problem can be found after an injury to a specific area of the brain, it is possible that this part of the brain is involved.

  • An alternative model of the link between mind and brain is parallel processing, which suggests that the relationship between mental functions and neural regions is not so simple.

  • Connectionism is the use of artificial neural networks to model specific cognitive processes using simplified models of how neurons operate.

  • Functional neuroimaging uses specific neuroimaging technologies to take readings from the brain, usually when a person is doing a particular task, in an attempt to understand how the activation of particular brain areas is related to the task.

  • In practice, these approaches are not mutually exclusive, and most neuropsychologists select the best approach or approaches for the task to be completed.

  • Neuropsychology has applications in a wide range of areas, including clinical practice, research, education, and industry.

  • Neuropsychology has contributed to our understanding of brain function, including the localization of function, the relationship between brain and behavior, and the plasticity of the brain.

  • Neuropsychology has also contributed to the development of treatments and interventions for a range of neurological and mental health conditions.


Think you know a thing or two about neuropsychology? Test your knowledge with our quiz on the history and basics of this fascinating field of psychology. From ancient Egypt to modern-day clinical practice, we'll cover the key concepts and figures that have shaped our understanding of how the brain and behavior are connected. Take the quiz now and see how much you really know about neuropsychology!

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