How Well Do You Know Prophet Muhammad's Life and Legacy?



9 Questions

What was the main reason for Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina?

What was the significance of the Constitution of Medina?

What was the outcome of the Battle of Badr?

What was the significance of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah?

What was the significance of the Conquest of Mecca?

What was the outcome of the Battle of Hunayn?

What was the main aspect of the Islamic faith according to the text?

What was the significance of Muhammad's descendants through his daughter Fatimah?

What was the view of Muslim mystics, known as sufis, towards Muhammad?


Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was an Arab religious, social, and political leader who preached and confirmed the monotheistic teachings of other prophets. He was born in Mecca in 570 CE, and his father died before his birth, while his mother died when he was six. He was raised by his grandfather and uncle and received his first revelation from God at the age of 40, proclaiming that "God is One". His followers were initially few and faced hostility from Meccan polytheists for 13 years. In 622, he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina, marking the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, he united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. He returned to Mecca in 629 with an army of 10,000 converts and seized the city with little bloodshed. He died in 632, and by then, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, and Muhammad's teachings and practices are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law. Muhammad's name means "praiseworthy" in Arabic, and he is also addressed by various appellations in the Quran. Important sources of biographical information on Muhammad include traditional Muslim biographies and hadith collections. Pre-Islamic Arabia was largely arid, and tribal affiliation was an important source of social cohesion. Gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, and the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols. Muhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca, and the angel Gabriel appeared to him in the year 610, commanding him to recite verses for the Quran. After a three-year pause, during which Muhammad felt depressed and gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices, he began preaching and distinguishing his own thoughts from the messages he received.Summary Title: The Life of Muhammad: Early Preaching, Opposition, Migration and Establishment of a New Polity

  • Muhammad's mission was to warn unbelievers of their eschatological punishment, preach monotheism, and provide examples from history to warn his contemporaries of similar calamities.

  • Early converts to Islam were younger brothers and sons of great merchants, people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe, and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.

  • Meccan opposition started when Muhammad condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers, and as his followers increased, he became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city.

  • Muhammad was persecuted and ill-treated, and his followers were martyred and tortured by Meccans who tried to convince him to abandon his preaching but he refused.

  • In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar.

  • The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE due to Meccan persecution.

  • Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina.

  • Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina, and war broke out between the people of Mecca and the Muslims.

  • Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans, and he ordered a number of raids to capture Meccan caravans.

  • The Battle of Badr commenced in March 624, and though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with fourteen Muslims dead.

  • The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers, and the opposition to him became less vocal.

  • Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes, but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death.

  • Muslims were required to believe in God, ask for forgiveness of sins, offer frequent prayers, assist others particularly those in need, reject cheating and the love of wealth, be chaste, and not commit female infanticide.Life of Muhammad Summary

  • Muhammad formed mutual-aid alliances with Bedouin tribes to protect against northern Hejaz attacks.

  • Conflict arose between the Meccans and Muhammad, leading to battles and raids.

  • The Battle of Uhud saw a Muslim defeat due to a lack of discipline among strategically placed archers.

  • Muhammad prevented alliances against Medina and expelled the Banu Nadir tribe.

  • The Battle of the Trench saw the Muslims dig a trench and the Meccans unsuccessfully attempt a siege.

  • The Banu Qurayza tribe was besieged and all men apart from a few converts were beheaded, while women and children were enslaved.

  • The Truce of Hudaybiyyah was signed, allowing Medina to gain strength and admiration from the Meccans.

  • The Conquest of Mecca saw minimal casualties and the destruction of all statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba.

  • The Battle of Hunayn and the Tabuk campaign saw Muhammad defeat hostile forces and receive submission from local chiefs.

  • Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage and delivered his Farewell Sermon, addressing issues of inheritance, women's rights, and tribal disputes.Life and Legacy of Prophet Muhammad

  • Muhammad fell ill and died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha.

  • Muhammad was buried where he died in Aisha's house and his tomb is located in the Mosque of the Prophet.

  • After Muhammad's death, the question of his successor led to disagreement among his companions, with Abu Bakr being confirmed as the first caliph.

  • Muhammad united several tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life.

  • Islamic social reforms improved the status of women, children, and slaves, and addressed the plight of the poor.

  • Muhammad is described as having a raised mole between his shoulders, and is said to have performed household chores.

  • Muhammad had 13 wives in total, with 11 marriages occurring after the migration to Medina.

  • Aisha was betrothed to Muhammad at the age of six or seven and the marriage was consummated when she was nine or ten years old.

  • Muhammad's descendants through his daughter Fatimah are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a.

  • The belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the Islamic faith, and he is regarded as the last prophet sent by God.

  • Traditionally, Muslims have expressed love and veneration for Muhammad, and his birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world.

  • Muslim mystics, known as sufis, viewed Muhammad as a perfect human being and all Sufi orders trace their spiritual descent back to him.


How much do you know about the life and legacy of Prophet Muhammad? Test your knowledge with this quiz that covers his early preaching, opposition, migration, establishment of a new polity, battles and raids, social reforms, family life, and death. Learn about the Hijra, the Constitution of Medina, the Battle of Badr, the Truce of Hudaybiyyah, the Conquest of Mecca, and more. Discover interesting facts about Muhammad's wives, descendants, physical features,

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