What was the estimated population of Rome at its height?
What was the name of the system of government created by Rome, which served as the inspiration for modern republics?
Which wars gave Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean?
What was the cause of the decline of Republican mores and traditions during the imperial period?
What was the significance of Marius' military reform?
Who reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, to form the First Triumvirate?
Who is considered the first Roman Emperor, despite Rome being an 'imperial' state since 146 BC?
Who established the Tetrarchy, dividing the Empire among four emperors and making tax reforms?
Who made Christianity the official state religion in 380 and banned all other religions in 391?
Ancient Rome refers to Roman civilization from the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.
Rome began as an Italic settlement, traditionally dated to 753 BC, and eventually dominated the Italian Peninsula, assimilated the Greek culture of southern Italy and the Etruscan culture and acquired an Empire that took in much of Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East.
At its height, Rome was among the largest empires in the ancient world, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants, roughly 20% of the world's population at the time. The Roman state evolved from an elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire.
Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture, and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics.
The Punic Wars with Carthage gave Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. The Roman Empire emerged with the principate of Augustus (from 27 BC); Rome's imperial domain now extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common prelude to the rise of a new emperor. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent barbarian kingdoms in the 5th century.
Agriculture appeared in Italy c. 4000 BC, and by the 7th century BC, large organised city-states had emerged in Etruria. By the 6th century, the Romans were constructing the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline and expanding to the Forum Boarium located between the Capitoline and Aventine Hills.
According to tradition, the Roman Republic was established c. 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.
The First Punic War began in 264 BC, and after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. The Second Punic War began with the invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, and Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War.
Generals on both sides of the Second Punic War were brilliant planners, and Rome fought this war with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by Quintus Fabius Maximus. Due to this, Hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome.Roman Republic: Wars, Political Divisions, and the Rise of Julius Caesar
Hannibal's invasion of Italy lasted over 16 years, causing significant damage to the country.
Scipio invaded the unprotected Carthaginian hinterland and forced Hannibal to return to defend Carthage itself, leading to the Battle of Zama and the end of the Second Punic War.
Rome made significant gains in the conquest of Hispania and Syracuse, the last Greek realm in Sicily.
After paying the war indemnity, Carthage felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, leading to the Third Punic War.
Rome declared war against Carthage in 149 BC, and Carthage was entirely destroyed and enslaved.
The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms led to the Roman and Greek cultures coming into closer contact, and the Roman elite became more luxurious and cosmopolitan.
Senators became rich at the expense of the provinces, while soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land.
The increase in foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work, creating a new class of wealthy merchants known as equestrians.
The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocking important land reforms and refusing to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government.
Marius began his military reform by levying the very poor, which secured loyalty of the army to the General in command.
Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, to form the First Triumvirate, and ultimately became pre-eminent over Rome.
After Caesar's assassination, Octavian tried to align himself with the Caesarian faction and legally established the Second Triumvirate, which was marked by the proscriptions of many senators and equites.The History of Ancient Rome: From the Roman Republic to the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty
Augustus is considered the first Roman Emperor, despite Rome being an "imperial" state since 146 BC.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty consisted of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, who boosted Rome's status as the central power in the Mediterranean.
Augustus assumed absolute powers, styled himself as Imperator, and diminished the political influence of the senatorial class.
Under Augustus' reign, Roman literature grew steadily in what is known as the Golden Age of Latin Literature.
Tiberius was regarded as an evil and melancholic man who was not an enthusiast for political affairs and was responsible for the murder of his relatives.
Caligula was a popular leader in the first half of his reign but became a crude and insane tyrant in his later years.
The Flavian dynasty was established by Vespasian after the Year of the Four Emperors, and Rome continued its expansion under his rule.
Titus, Vespasian's son, had a short-lived rule and finished the construction of the Colosseum.
Domitian ruled for fifteen years and assumed totalitarian characteristics.
The Nerva-Antonine dynasty included the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus, during which Rome reached its greatest territorial and economic extent.Roman Empire reached its peak under Trajan's rule, covering 5 million square kilometers His successor Hadrian withdrew troops from Parthia, Armenia, and Iraq, and crushed a revolt in Mauretania and the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea The Five Good Emperors' rule is considered the golden era of the Empire Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, was not considered one of the Five Good Emperors due to his brutality and lack of military leadership Septimius Severus seized power after the Year of the Five Emperors and attempted to revive totalitarianism The Crisis of the Third Century saw 26 emperors in a 49-year period, political instability, external invasions, pandemics, and economic depression Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, dividing the Empire among four emperors and making tax reforms Diocletian also initiated a significant Christian persecution in 303 Constantine assumed power in 306 and legalized Christianity in 313 with the Edict of Milan Constantine founded Constantinople in 324 and made it the new capital of the Roman Empire Theodosius I made Christianity the official state religion in 380 and banned all other religions in 391.
Test your knowledge of Ancient Rome with this informative quiz! From its humble beginnings as an Italic settlement to its status as one of the largest empires in the ancient world, the history of Rome is fascinating and complex. This quiz covers topics such as the Punic Wars, the Roman Republic, the Julio-Claudian dynasty, and the Crisis of the Third Century. Whether you're a history buff or just looking to learn more about this influential civilization, this quiz is sure to challenge and educate
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