Effects of Growth Hormone on Protein & Electrolyte Homeostasis

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What effect does growth hormone have on plasma cholesterol levels?

It decreases plasma cholesterol levels

How does growth hormone affect Na+ and K+ excretion?

It reduces Na+ and K+ excretion independent of adrenal glands

What is the impact of growth hormone deficiency in adults?

Increase in body fat and decrease in lean body mass

How does growth hormone affect hepatic glucose output?

It increases hepatic glucose output

What happens to circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels due to growth hormone?

They increase

What is the effect of growth hormone on amino acid 4-hydroxyproline excretion?

It increases excretion

What is the principal circulating somatomedin in humans?

IGF-I

What effect does growth hormone have on the stimulation of insulin-like growth factors in humans?

Stimulates the secretion of IGF-I

Which polypeptide growth factors are secreted by the liver and other tissues?

Somatomedins

What is the additional way growth hormone promotes growth?

Increases the ability of the pancreas to respond to insulinogenic stimuli

Which factor affects the incorporation of sulfate into cartilage and stimulates collagen formation?

Sulfation factor

What is the role of IGF-II in human fetuses?

Plays a role in the growth of the fetus before birth

When does the concentration of IGF-I in plasma peak in humans?

At the time of puberty

In which organs is the gene for IGF-II expressed in adults?

Choroid plexus and meninges.

What is an additional member of the family of polypeptide growth factors?

Relaxin.

Explore the impact of growth hormone on protein anabolism, electrolyte balance, and metabolic rate, along with its effects on plasma phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, amino acid levels, lean body mass, body fat, and cholesterol.

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