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Carbohydrates in Health Sciences | Curtin Medical School CRICOS Provider Code 00301J

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30 Questions

What is the characteristic of an aldehyde group in aldoses?

It can reduce cupric ions to produce cuprous ions

Which of the following is an example of an epimer?

D-glucose and D-galactose

What is the name of the pathway that interconverts hexoses and pentoses in many cells?

Pentose phosphate pathway

What is the term for sugars that contain a free aldehyde or ketone group?

Reducing sugars

What is the number of carbons in an aldohexose?

6

What is the term for a carbohydrate that contains a ketone group in its structure?

Ketose

What is the purpose of Benedict's reagent in detecting carbohydrates?

To detect reducing sugars

What is the term for a sugar that differs in the configuration at only a single asymmetric carbon?

Epimer

What is the number of carbons in an aldopentose?

5

What is the characteristic of a ketose?

It contains a ketone group

What is the primary function of hexoses in cellular metabolism?

To serve as energy molecules

Which type of carbohydrate is primarily involved in information storage?

Pentoses

What is the characteristic that distinguishes aldoses from ketoses?

Type of functional group

What is the result of the reaction between reducing sugars and cupric ions?

Reduction of cupric ions to cuprous ions

Which type of carbohydrate is composed of multiple monosaccharides linked together?

Polysaccharides

What is the term for the bond that forms between two monosaccharides?

Glycosidic bond

Which type of carbohydrate is involved in cell signaling and recognition?

Glycoconjugates

What is the term for the process by which hexoses and pentoses are interconverted?

Pentose phosphate pathway

Which type of carbohydrate is characterized by a linear chain of monosaccharides?

Polysaccharides

What is the term for the type of carbohydrate that is composed of a few monosaccharides linked together?

Oligosaccharides

What is the significance of the pentose phosphate pathway in cellular metabolism?

The pentose phosphate pathway is important for interconverting hexoses and pentoses in many cells, allowing for the flexibility to use different types of carbohydrates for energy and information.

How do the structural differences between aldoses and ketoses affect their biological functions?

The presence of an aldehyde or ketone group in aldoses and ketoses, respectively, influences their ability to reduce cupric ions, which is used in detecting carbohydrates, and may also impact their involvement in energy metabolism and information storage.

What is the importance of HbA1c as a diagnostic indicator in diabetes?

HbA1c is a diagnostic indicator of the control of diabetes, as it reflects the average blood glucose levels over the past 2-3 months, allowing for the monitoring of disease progression and treatment efficacy.

How do the different types of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) contribute to their diverse biological functions?

The different types of carbohydrates varying in size and complexity contribute to their diverse biological functions, such as energy metabolism, information storage, and cell signaling and recognition, due to their unique structural and chemical properties.

What is the significance of carbohydrates in cell signaling and recognition?

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in cell signaling and recognition, as they are involved in the formation of glycoconjugates, which are essential for cellular interactions and communication.

How do the structural differences between epimers influence their biological functions?

The structural differences between epimers, which differ in the configuration at only a single asymmetric carbon, can affect their biological functions, such as their involvement in energy metabolism and information storage.

What is the role of carbohydrates in information storage, and how do they differ from their role in energy metabolism?

Carbohydrates play a critical role in information storage, particularly in the formation of polynucleotides (DNA and RNA), which are distinct from their role in energy metabolism, where they serve as fuel molecules.

How do the properties of reducing sugars contribute to their detection using Benedict's reagent?

The ability of reducing sugars to reduce cupric ions (Cu2+) to produce cuprous ions (Cu+) enables their detection using Benedict's reagent, which is based on this reaction.

What is the significance of glycoconjugates in cellular biology, and how do they relate to carbohydrates?

Glycoconjugates, which are composed of carbohydrates and other molecules, play a crucial role in cellular biology, particularly in cell signaling and recognition, and are formed through the attachment of carbohydrates to proteins or lipids.

How do the biological functions of carbohydrates differ from those of other biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids?

Carbohydrates have distinct biological functions, including energy metabolism, information storage, and cell signaling and recognition, which differ from those of proteins and lipids, reflecting their unique structural and chemical properties.

Learn about the classification, structure, properties, and roles of carbohydrates in the context of health sciences. Explore oligosaccharides and polysaccharides in detail to understand their significance in the field.

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