9 Questions

What is the suborder of primates that split from the primitive primate line about 63 mya?

Which of the following is NOT a common threat to primate species?

What is the legal status of non-human primates?

Which of the following is NOT a locomotion method used by primates?

What is the clade that the order Primates is nested within?

Which of the following is NOT a way that primates communicate?

What is the approximate number of recognized primate species?

Which of the following is NOT a method that primates use to exploit food sources?

Which of the following is a unique feature of primate color vision?


Order of Mammals:

  • Primates are a diverse order of mammals, divided into strepsirrhines (lemurs, galagos, and lorisids) and haplorhines (tarsiers and simians).

  • Primates evolved from small terrestrial mammals, adapting to life in trees with large brains, visual acuity, and dextrous hands.

  • There are 376-524 species of living primates, with new species still being discovered.

  • Primates have opposable thumbs and adaptations for climbing trees, including leaping and brachiation.

  • Primates are highly social and have slower rates of development, longer lifespans, and are known to use tools.

  • Close interactions between humans and non-human primates can lead to transmission of zoonotic diseases.

  • About 60% of primate species are threatened with extinction due to deforestation, primate hunting, and other factors.

  • Primates have traditionally been classified using an "ascending series" methodology, but modern classifications use monophyletic groupings.

  • The order Primates is part of the clade Euarchontoglires and is nested within the clade Eutheria of Class Mammalia.

  • The suborder Strepsirrhini split from the primitive primate line about 63 mya, while the suborder Haplorhini emerged about 40 mya.

  • The anthropoid primates possibly traversed the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to South America during the Eocene by island hopping.

  • Modern humans originated in Africa 100,000-200,000 years ago.The Anatomy, Physiology, and Behavior of Primates

  • The number of recognized primate species has increased from 376 in 2001 to 522 in recent publications, including subspecies.

  • Primate hybrids usually arise in captivity but have also been found in the wild, and intergeneric hybrids have been found.

  • The creation of two crab-eating macaque clones, Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, was reported using the same complex DNA transfer method that produced Dolly the sheep.

  • The primate skull has a large, domed cranium that protects a large brain, with the mean endocranial volume being 1,201 cubic centimeters in humans.

  • Primates have forward-facing eyes on the front of the skull, which allows for binocular vision and accurate distance perception.

  • The primate collar bone is a prominent element of the pectoral girdle, allowing for broad mobility of the shoulder joint.

  • Sexual dimorphism is often exhibited in primates, with dimorphism in body mass and canine tooth size, along with pelage and skin color.

  • Primates have a variety of locomotion methods, including brachiation, bipedalism, leaping, arboreal, and terrestrial quadrupedalism, climbing, knuckle-walking, or a combination of these methods.

  • The evolution of color vision in primates is unique, with nocturnal primates often being monochromatic, catarrhines routinely trichromatic, and platyrrhines trichromatic in a few cases.

  • The social systems of primates are best classified by the amount of movement by females occurring between groups, with four categories proposed by Richard Wrangham based on this.

  • Several species of primates are known to associate in the wild and coordinate anti-predator behavior and foraging benefits.

  • Primates use olfactory signals, vocalizations, gestures, and facial expressions to convey psychological state, and they are a particularly vocal group of mammals, with some species making distinctive songs and choruses.Overview of Primates

  • Primates have a diverse range of vocalizations that are used for communication, territorial protection, and mate-guarding.

  • Many non-human primates have the vocal anatomy to produce human speech but lack the proper brain wiring.

  • Primates have slower rates of development than other mammals and rely on their mothers for care and feeding.

  • Infanticide is common in some species, particularly in polygynous species such as gray langurs and gorillas.

  • Primates have a longer juvenile period between weaning and sexual maturity than other mammals of similar size.

  • Primates exploit a variety of food sources, including fruit, leaves, gum, insects, and small vertebrates.

  • Predators of primates include various species of carnivorans, birds of prey, reptiles, and other primates.

  • Primates have advanced cognitive abilities and are capable of problem-solving, tool use, and understanding aspects of human language.

  • Some primates have been observed using tools in the wild, such as chimpanzees using sticks to fish for termites.

  • Primates live primarily in the tropical latitudes of Africa, Asia, and the Americas, but some species can be found outside of the tropics.

  • Close interactions between humans and non-human primates can create pathways for the transmission of zoonotic diseases.

  • The legal status of non-human primates is the subject of much debate, with some organizations campaigning to award them legal rights.The Threats to Non-Human Primates

  • The Great Ape Project recommends against using chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas for animal experiments.

  • Around 15,000 non-human primates are kept as exotic pets in the US, with prices ranging from $3000 to $30,000.

  • Non-human primates are used in laboratories, space missions, and as service animals for disabled humans.

  • There are strict care requirements for non-human primates kept in captivity.

  • Over 60% of primate species are threatened with extinction, with 75% of species having decreasing populations.

  • Common threats to primate species include deforestation, forest fragmentation, monkey drives and primate hunting.

  • Large-scale tropical forest clearing is the main process that threatens primates.

  • Primates with a body size over 5kg are at increased extinction risk due to their greater profitability to poachers.

  • Madagascar has experienced the greatest extinction of primates in the recent past.

  • In Central and South America, hunting and forest fragmentation are the main problems for primates.

  • There are 21 critically endangered primates, with seven remaining on the IUCN's "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates" list since the year 2000.

  • Miss Waldron's red colobus was recently declared extinct.


Test your knowledge of primates with our quiz on the Order of Mammals. From the evolution of primates to their unique anatomy, behavior and threats to their survival, this quiz covers a wide range of topics. Discover interesting facts about primates, including their vocalizations, social systems, and tool use, while learning about the challenges they face in the wild. Whether you're a primate enthusiast or just looking to learn more about these fascinating creatures, this quiz is for you.

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